ORIGINS AND ACTIVITIES OF THE ARIZONA BASIC GOALS-COURSE OF STUDY COMMITTEE FOR SOCIAL STUDIES
KeywordsSocial sciences -- Study and teaching -- Arizona.
Arizona. State Board of Education.
Basic Goals-Course of Study Committee for Social Studies
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Degree ProgramGraduate College
Educational Foundations and Administration
Degree GrantorUniversity of Arizona
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Identifying Genetic Pleiotropy through a Literature-wide Association Study (LitWAS) and a Phenotype Association Study (PheWAS) in the Age-related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2)Simmons, Michael; The University of Arizona College of Medicine - Phoenix; Lu, Zhiyong (The University of Arizona., 2017-05-26)Genetic association studies simplify genotype‐phenotype relationship investigation by considering only the presence of a given polymorphism and the presence or absence of a given downstream phenotype. Although such associations do not indicate causation, collections of phenotypes sharing association with a single genetic polymorphism may provide valuable mechanistic insights. In this thesis we explore such genetic pleiotropy with Deep Phenotype Association Studies (DeePAS) using data from the Age‐Related Eye Study 2 (AREDS2). We also employ a novel text mining approach to extract pleiotropic associations from the published literature as a hypothesis generation mechanism. Is it possible to identify pleiotropic genetic associations across multiple published abstracts and validate these in data from AREDS2? Data from the AREDS2 trial includes 123 phenotypes including AMD features, other ocular conditions, cognitive function and cardiovascular, neurological, gastrointestinal and endocrine disease. A previously validated relationship extraction algorithm was used to isolate descriptions of genetic associations with these phenotypes in MEDLINE abstracts. Results were filtered to exclude negated findings and normalize variant mentions. Genotype data was available for 1826 AREDS2 participants. A DeePAS was performed by evaluating the association between selected SNPs and all available phenotypes. Associations that remained significant after Bonferroni‐correction were replicated in AREDS. LitWAS analysis identified 9372 SNPs with literature support for at least two distinct phenotypes, with an average of 3.1 phenotypes/SNP. PheWAS analyses revealed that two variants of the ARMS2‐HTRA1 locus at 10q26, rs10490924 and rs3750846, were significantly associated with sub‐retinal hemorrhage in AMD (rs3750846 OR 1.79 (1.41‐2.27), p=1.17*10‐7). This associated remained significant even in populations of participants with neovascular AMD. Furthermore, odds ratios for the development of sub‐retinal hemorrhage in the presence of the rs3750846 SNP were similar between incident and prevalent AREDS2 sub‐populations (OR: 1.94 vs 1.75). This association was also replicated in data from the AREDS trial. No literature‐defined pleiotropic associations tested remained significant after multiple‐testing correction. The rs3750846 variant of the ARMS2‐HTRA1 locus is associated with sub‐retinal hemorrhage. Automatic literature mining, when paired with clinical data, is a promising method for exploring genotype‐phenotype relationships.
Association of dispositional optimism with Life’s Simple 7’s Cardiovascular Health Index: results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) Sociocultural Ancillary Study (SCAS)Hernandez, Rosalba; González, Hector M; Tarraf, Wassim; Moskowitz, Judith T; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Gallo, Linda C; Penedo, Frank J; Isasi, Carmen R; Ruiz, John Manuel; Arguelles, William; et al. (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2018-03)Objectives Mounting evidence links positive psychological functioning to restorative health processes and favourable medical outcomes. However, very little is known about the relationship between optimism, an indicator of psychological functioning and the American Heart Association (AHA)-defined concept of cardiovascular health (CVH), particularly in Hispanics/Latinos of diverse backgrounds. To address limitations of existing literature, this study investigated the association between dispositional optimism and CVH in a heterogeneous sample of Hispanics/Latinos residing in the USA. Design Cross-sectional study. Participants and setting Data were analysed from 4919 adults ages 18-75 of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos parent study and the Sociocultural Ancillary Study. Main outcome measures Optimism was assessed using the 6-item Life Orientation Test-Revised (range from 6 to 30). AHA classification standards were used to derive an additive CVH score with operationalisation of indicators as Ideal, Intermediate and Poor. The overall CVH score included indicators of diet, body mass index, physical activity, cholesterol, blood pressure, fasting glucose and smoking status. Multivariate linear and logistic regressions were used to examine associations of optimism with CVH (Life's Simple 7), after adjusting for sociodemographic factors and depressive symptoms. Results Each increase in the optimism total score was associated with a greater CVH score (beta=0.03 per unit increase, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.05). When modelling tertiles of optimism, participants with moderate (p=0.24 to 95 % Cl 0.06 to 0.42) and high (beta=0.12, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.24) levels of optimism displayed greater CVH scores when compared with their least optimistic peers. Conclusion This study offers preliminary evidence for an association between optimism and CVH in a large heterogeneous group of Hispanic/Latino adults. Our study adds scientific knowledge of psychological assets that may promote CVH and suggests a novel therapeutic target for consideration. Future studies are needed to explore causality and potential mechanism underlying the relationship between positive emotion and heart health.
Studying Social Studies: Using Personal Narratives to Explore the Shifting Social Studies CurriculumCarter, Katherine; Tejeda, Victoria Alexandria (The University of Arizona., 2015)The social studies curriculum has been shifting and developing since the inception of the subject itself. Current trends continue to move toward more inclusion of previously excluded cultures, religions, and experiences, as well as a more student-centered curriculum. This has not been a smooth transition, however, as some attempts continue to seem inadequate and others are met with continued conservative backlash. This thesis examines this shifting curriculum through the lens of well-remembered events from time spent as a student and a student teacher in social studies classrooms. An analysis of these experiences and related literature leads to an investigation of the possible implications for teachers and teacher education programs.