AdvisorKolosick, J. Timothy
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractA series of five experiments were performed to determine if musical sound had a different effect than non-musical sound on the germination of zucchini and okra seeds when compared to a control. Musical sound for this study was a collection of improvised works performed by R. Carlos Nakai and Paul Horn. Predominant instrumentation was different types of flute with some selections for soprano saxophone or bass voice. Non-musical sound was "pink" noise used to test loudspeakers. The first three experiments compared musical sound to a control. The last two experiments compared musical sound to non-musical sound to a control. The number of seeds that had sprouted was counted every 12 hours over a 72-hour time span. Data from the germination of 3,600 seeds over a total of 14 runs for the five experiments were examined using five-way analyses of variance of mixed design. The main effect for musical sound versus control over all five experiments was highly significant (p < 0.002). Positional location, temperature and seed type were shown not to be factors. Over the eight runs of the last two experiments (2,400 seeds) there were no significant interactions between non-musical sound and control. The two-way interaction between condition and time for the three conditions of musical sound, non-musical sound and control was statistically significant (p < 0.03) indicating that the musical sound used for this study had a greater effect than the non-musical sound. These results imply that effects of musical sound extend beyond the psychological and suggest the possibility that musical sound can have physiological effects on biological systems.
Degree ProgramGraduate College
Music and Dance