AuthorFukumura, Kazunari, 1956-
AdvisorWaller, Peter M.
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractNitrate movement under simultaneous influence of hydraulic, electric and chemical gradients was investigated. A one-dimensional ion migration model was developed and compared with laboratory column experiments. Operation of subsurface drainage with an electrode was discussed as an application. The ion transport equation was developed utilizing non-equilibrium thermodynamics. Onsager's reciprocal relations were applied to reduce the number of linear phenomenological coefficients that relate flux to driving forces. Then phenomenological coefficients were expressed using known or measurable physical, chemical and electrical properties of solute and porous media. Developed equations were numerically solved by the Integral Finite Difference Method in one dimension. The numerical results were validated with analytical solutions of simple boundary conditions as well as the results obtained from laboratory column experiments for two or three applied gradients. Without water flow, nitrate concentration increased at the anode by 2.5 times after 100 hrs of 30 V application. Three initial concentrations, 10, 100 and 500 ppm NO₃-N, were tested. A log normal relation between elapsed time and relative concentration increase at the anode was obtained. Two flux rates (0.112 and 0.225 cm min⁻¹), and three inflow concentrations (100, 500 and 1000 ppm NO₃-N) were used to evaluate nitrate transport in the column. Nitrate concentration at the anode increased by 10 to 20% at the end of all experiments. However, the concentration in the column was same as inflow concentration. The application of electrokinetic nitrate removal by installed subsurface drainage with on-off (no flow then flush out) operation is recommended over a continuous flow approach. The numerical model results showed very low flux rates (i.e. 2.68 x 10⁻³ cm min⁻¹) are required for nitrate accumulation in a sand column, and the experimental results confirmed no accumulation at a flux rate of 0.112 cm min⁻¹.
Degree ProgramGraduate College
Agricultural & Biosystems Engineering