NITROGEN OXIDESₓ ABATEMENT: THE EFFECT OF COOLING AND COMPOSITION ON STAGED PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION
AuthorBotsford, Charles Wesley
KeywordsCoal -- Combustion.
Combustion gases -- Composition.
Coal, Pulverized -- Combustion.
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Degree ProgramGraduate College
Degree GrantorUniversity of Arizona
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THE EFFECT OF COAL TYPE, RESIDENCE TIME AND COMBUSTION CONFIGURATION ON THE SUBMICRON AEROSOL COMPOSITION AND SIZE DISTRIBUTION FROM PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION (STAGED, FLYASH, SPECIES ENRICHMENT).Peterson, Tom; LINAK, WILLIAM PATRICK. (The University of Arizona., 1985)Pulverized samples of Utah bituminous, Beulah (North Dakota) low Na lignite, Beulah high Na lignite and Texas (San Miguel) lignite coals were burned at a rate of 2.5 kg/hr in a laboratory furnace under various (overall fuel lean) combustion conditions. Particle size distributions (PSD) and size segregated particle filter samples were taken at various positions within the convection section. Temperature and gas concentrations were measured throughout. The evolution of the submicron PSD within the convection section for the four coals was similar, although the location of the initial particle mode at the convection section inlet varied with coal type. While staged (.8/1.2) combustion of the Utah bituminous coal had a variable effect on the volume of submicron aerosol produced, staged combustion of two of the three lignites (Beulah low Na and Texas) caused a definite increase in the submicron aerosol volume. Vapor enhancement due to a localized reducing atmosphere, which would effect coals of higher ash volatility or higher inherent ash content, is thought to explain this behavior. Depressed combustion temperatures associated with the high moisture content of the Beulah high Na lignite are thought to offset the effects of staging. Increased combustion temperatures (through oxygen enrichment) caused staged volume increases for the Beulah high Na lignite. Combustion temperatures are a controlling factor even at more extreme staging conditions. Chemical analysis of the size segregated particle samples show the trace elements, As, Pb, Zn and the major elements, Na and K to be enriched in the submicron aerosol. Auger depth profiles show these small particles to be comprised of a core enriched in Fe, Si, Ca and Mg and surface layers enriched in Na and K. These results point to a mechanism of homogeneous nucleation of low vapor pressure species followed by successive layering of progressively more volatile species. Volatile species are enriched in the submicron aerosol due to the large surface areas provided. Modeling efforts show that while coagulation may be the dominant mechanism to describe the aerosol evolving within the convection section, it cannot be used solely to predict the PSD. Another mechanism, presumably surface area dependent growth (condensation) must be included.
Pulverized coal combustion: Flame attachment and nitrogen oxide emissionsWendt, Jost O. L.; Ogden, Gregory E. (The University of Arizona., 2002)To fully utilize coal as a long-term energy source, pollution prevention technologies must be developed to mitigate the negative environmental and health impacts of coal combustion. NOₓ emissions are of particular concern due to their role in forming ground-level ozone, photochemical smog, fine particulates and acid rain. A systematic evaluation of near-flame aerodynamics was conducted to determine how burner operating parameters and oxygen partial pressure influence flame attachment and coal ignition, two properties essential for proper low NOₓ burner operation. A laboratory scale (17kW) 2m tall, 0.5m diameter electrically heated furnace and axial burner with adjustable secondary combustion air annuli and primary fuel jets were used in the study. Transport air oxygen partial pressure (PO₂), coal particle size distribution, primary and secondary jet velocity, and wall temperature were varied independently to determine the effect of each variable on flame attachment and NOₓ. NOₓ emissions from the furnace were similar to those from full-scale tangentially-fired boilers. The tendency for flame attachment increased with velocity ratio (Θ), wall temperature, PO₂, and coal fines. Θ's greater than 1 were required for stable combustion. Increasing Θ reduced flame standoff distances and NOₓ for always-detached flames. NOₓ increased with Θ for always-attached flames. Increasing PO₂ reduced NOₓ by up to 50% by promoting flame attachment. However both oxygen enrichment and increasing fines had little impact on NOₓ for always-attached and always-detached flames. Wall temperature and excess air in leakage were the dominant variables affecting NOₓ. Furnace exhaust oxygen levels increased when operating under a slight vacuum with corresponding increases in NOₓ. Emissions for detached flames increased with wall temperature 3 times faster than attached flames. Emissions data obtained from the furnace under slight positive furnace pressure increased linearly with wall temperature. A novel dual flame was produced at high Θ and reduced PO₂ consisting of one flame attached to the burner and one stabilized 18" below the burner. This configuration is similar to staged combustion but without separate over-fire air. Emissions from the dual flame were significantly below those observed from conventional Type-O attached and detached flames.