Assessing the Role of Dietary Polyamines on the Continuum of Colorectal Carcinoma
AuthorVargas, Ashley Joy
AdvisorThompson, Patricia A.
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractPutrescine, spermidine and spermine are the polyamines biosynthesized by human cells via ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and are also sourced from the diet. Polyamines are required for malignant and normal cell growth and development. Pharmacological suppression of polyamine biosynthesis, by difluoromethylornithine, and inflammation, via sulindac, has demonstrated ~70% efficacy in preventing premalignant colorectal adenomas (CRA) in a clinical trial; however, high polyamine intakes mitigated this preventative action. Further, dietary polyamines increase the dysplasia of CRA in initiated animal models of colorectal cancer (CRC) and are hypothesized to function as tumor promoters. Human research on dietary polyamines was limited until the development of a dietary database in 2007 but, continues to be limited by the lack of a biomarker of exposure. Chapter 1 of this dissertation tests the hypothesis that dietary polyamines increase risk of CRA in polyp-formers (n = 1164) and found evidence to support this hypothesis. However, only women, younger participants and certain genotypes experienced more risk of CRA with high polyamine exposure. Chapter II tests the hypothesis that dietary polyamines increase the risk for CRC in an average risk cohort of post-menopausal women (n = 87,620) and did not find evidence to support this hypothesis in the whole population. Rather, dietary polyamines were non-significantly protective against CRC and significantly protective when paired with aspirin use and against CRC-specific death. There was some evidence to support an increase in risk of CRC in younger participants with high polyamine exposure. Overall, the first two chapters suggest that dietary polyamines protect the colorectum in normal risk individuals but promote carcinogenesis in high risk individuals. Chapter III tests the hypothesis that dietary polyamine intake correlates with urinary polyamine output in a group of overweight/obese, older men (n = 36) and Chapter IV tests the hypothesis that intake of highly ripe sweet cherries will increase urinary polyamine output in a subgroup of 10 men from Chapter III. The findings from these chapters suggest there may be a positive correlation, but that a better measure of dietary polyamine intake is needed to determine if urinary polyamines are biomarkers of exposure to polyamines.
Degree ProgramGraduate College