AuthorBofill-Calero, Jaime Oscar
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractImprovisation is regarded as the most sublime element in the jíbaro folk music tradition of Puerto Rico. This tradition originated by the jíbaro, the simple rural farmer of Puerto Rico's heartland, involves the complicated art of improvising in décima, a ten-line poetic form, as well as improvisation of melodic lines played on the cuatro, a small guitar-like instrument. Since jíbaro improvisation is an art that is transmitted orally and involves a seemingly spontaneous act, it might seem odd to talk about a theory of improvisation within this style of music. My ethnographic research however has revealed that improvisation in jíbaro music is actually a highly structured performance practice and involves an informal theory that is based on the knowledge of archetypal patterns that generate and organize jíbaro improvisations.Recent theories of music which establish parallels between music, language, and cognition (Lerdhal and Jackendoff; Clarke; Gjerdingen) have lead me to believe that improvisation in jíbaro music is generated by the combination of archetypal patterns that create a musical syntax. These patterns are stored in minds of jíbaro performers as cognitive schemas. My study is also based on the work of Puerto Rican scholars Luis M. Alvarez and Angel Quintero who have identified African rhythmic patterns as the generative musical source in many styles of Puerto Rican folk music. By combining theories of music and ethnographic methods, this paper will provide a greater understanding of orally transmitted cultural expressions, which utilize improvisation, as well as give insight to the cognitive processes that shape this performance practice.
Degree ProgramGraduate College
Degree GrantorUniversity of Arizona
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
That Old Time Religion: The Influence of West and Central African Religious Culture on the Music of the Azusa Street RevivalWickham, Anna (The University of Arizona., 2014)The Azusa Street Revival was a movement started in 1906 by a small group of black individuals at a prayer meeting in Los Angeles, California. The revival is largely considered the beginning of the Pentecostal movement. This paper investigates the relationship between the worship practices of the Azusa Street Revival and the musical and religious traditions of the West and Central African peoples who were the ancestors of some of the most prominent and influential participants in the movement. These practices, which include spirit possession, physical movement and rhythm, musical collaboration, and indeterminate times of worship, seemingly made their way from Africa into the daily lives of African American slaves, where they were adopted by participants at the American camp meetings of the early nineteenth century. From there, these West and Central African musical traditions became instituted in the holiness movement, the precursor to the Azusa Street Revival.
Factors Contributing to Arizona Elementary General Music Teachers' Attitudes and Practices Regarding Multicultural Music EducationPetersen Jr., Gerald Anthony (The University of Arizona., 2005)Gerald Anthony Petersen Jr., Ph.D.The University of Arizona, 2005Director: Brian D. Ebie The purpose of this study was to provide specific data regarding the level of multiculturalism of Arizona elementary general music teachers and their utilization of multicultural music education in curriculum and activities. Data gathered was used to investigate the relationship between a teacher's life experience, personal attitudes, personal behavior, and professional behavior with their developing and employing multicultural music education. Subjects included Arizona elementary general music teachers (N=280) during the 2004-05 school year. The Personal Multicultural Assessment and the Music Specialist's Multicultural Music Education Survey were sent to the teachers along with a demographic report sheet. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, correlational analysis (Pearson-Product Moment Correlation), analysis of variance (ANOVA), and a multiple regression. The results of the survey indicated that Arizona elementary general music teachers are functioning at varying levels of multiculturalism. The teachers' Personal Multicultural Assessment mean scores ranked at the third level of the Multicultural Personae in the areas of Personal Behavior, Professional Behavior, and on the Composite score. The areas of Life Experience and Personal Attitude ranked at the second level of the Multicultural Personae. Statistically significant relationships were found between the population of the teachers' hometown and the Life Experience subscale score and the Composite score. The undergraduate institution from which the teacher graduated was positively related to the Personal Behavior subscale score and the Composite score. Though the majority of Arizona elementary general music teachers felt inadequately prepared for teaching multicultural music education or have ethnic instruments, they reported utilizing the majority of regional-specific world music. Life experience was a significant factor in determining music teachers' utilization of multicultural music education. This study demonstrated that Arizona elementary general music teachers' personal attitudes, personal behavior, and professional behavior regarding multiculturalism may not have effected their utilization of multicultural music education.