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That Old Time Religion: The Influence of West and Central African Religious Culture on the Music of the Azusa Street RevivalBrobeck, John T.; Wickham, Anna; Schauer, Elizabeth R.; Mugmon, Matthew (The University of Arizona., 2014)The Azusa Street Revival was a movement started in 1906 by a small group of black individuals at a prayer meeting in Los Angeles, California. The revival is largely considered the beginning of the Pentecostal movement. This paper investigates the relationship between the worship practices of the Azusa Street Revival and the musical and religious traditions of the West and Central African peoples who were the ancestors of some of the most prominent and influential participants in the movement. These practices, which include spirit possession, physical movement and rhythm, musical collaboration, and indeterminate times of worship, seemingly made their way from Africa into the daily lives of African American slaves, where they were adopted by participants at the American camp meetings of the early nineteenth century. From there, these West and Central African musical traditions became instituted in the holiness movement, the precursor to the Azusa Street Revival.
Factors Contributing to Arizona Elementary General Music Teachers' Attitudes and Practices Regarding Multicultural Music EducationEbie, Brian D.; Petersen Jr., Gerald Anthony; Ebie, Brian D.; Cooper, Shelly; Hancock, Carl (The University of Arizona., 2005)Gerald Anthony Petersen Jr., Ph.D.The University of Arizona, 2005Director: Brian D. Ebie The purpose of this study was to provide specific data regarding the level of multiculturalism of Arizona elementary general music teachers and their utilization of multicultural music education in curriculum and activities. Data gathered was used to investigate the relationship between a teacher's life experience, personal attitudes, personal behavior, and professional behavior with their developing and employing multicultural music education. Subjects included Arizona elementary general music teachers (N=280) during the 2004-05 school year. The Personal Multicultural Assessment and the Music Specialist's Multicultural Music Education Survey were sent to the teachers along with a demographic report sheet. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, correlational analysis (Pearson-Product Moment Correlation), analysis of variance (ANOVA), and a multiple regression. The results of the survey indicated that Arizona elementary general music teachers are functioning at varying levels of multiculturalism. The teachers' Personal Multicultural Assessment mean scores ranked at the third level of the Multicultural Personae in the areas of Personal Behavior, Professional Behavior, and on the Composite score. The areas of Life Experience and Personal Attitude ranked at the second level of the Multicultural Personae. Statistically significant relationships were found between the population of the teachers' hometown and the Life Experience subscale score and the Composite score. The undergraduate institution from which the teacher graduated was positively related to the Personal Behavior subscale score and the Composite score. Though the majority of Arizona elementary general music teachers felt inadequately prepared for teaching multicultural music education or have ethnic instruments, they reported utilizing the majority of regional-specific world music. Life experience was a significant factor in determining music teachers' utilization of multicultural music education. This study demonstrated that Arizona elementary general music teachers' personal attitudes, personal behavior, and professional behavior regarding multiculturalism may not have effected their utilization of multicultural music education.