• Collective Utility of Exchanging Treated Sewage Effluent for Irrigation and Mining Water

      Ko, Stephen C.; Duckstein, Lucien; Systems & Industrial Engineering, University of Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1972-05-06)
      The concept of collective utility is applied to a case study of alternative water resource utilization by providing a basis for comparing alternative uses of resources from the viewpoint of aggregate welfare. The exchange of sewage effluent for groundwater used by irrigation farmers, and the exchange of sewage effluent for groundwater used by processing and milling miners in Tucson, Arizona, are given as examples. Reviewed are collective utility concepts, case problems, definitions of problems, formulation of the model, and marginal change of collective utility. The first case has a collective utility of $800,500-g, where g represents unquantifiable factors, such as the reduction in quality of living due to the odor if solid waste exchanges. The second case has a collective utility of $175,000. Since it is likely that g will be on the order of $1 million per year, the first exchange is preferable to the second.
    • Hydrology as a Science?

      Dvoracek, M. J.; Evans, D. D.; Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1972-05-06)
      Experimental and historical development of the systematic study of water is briefly reviewed to prove hydrology a science. The hydrology program at the university of Arizona is outlined, and details of the course 'water and the environment' are expounded. This introductory course is intended for non-scientific oriented students at this southwestern university. A reading list is provided for the class, and scientifically designed laboratory experiments are developed. The first semester includes discussion of world water inventory; occurrence of water; hydrologic cycle; interaction of oceanography, meteorology, geology, biology, glaciology, geomorphology and soils; properties of water (physical, biological, chemical), and resources development. The second semester discusses municipal, industrial and agricultural water requirements, surface, ground, imported and effluent water resources management; water law; economic, legal, political, and social water resource planning; ecological impact; patterns of use; and survival of man. Mathematical problems are reviewed along with ecological orientation of students.
    • Subsidence Damage in Southern Arizona

      McCauley, Charles A.; Gum, Russell L.; Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1972-05-06)
      Land is subsiding over a heavily mined aquifer in south central Arizona. Subsidence damages are inventoried to help provide a basis upon which cost studies can be performed to determine actions to lessen the economic impact of these damages. Water table drawdown produces increasing loading stress by three ways: changes in bouyant support of aquifer grains, changes in water table, or both. Two types of subsidence are recognized--one-directional compression, and near surface phenomenon. Damages due to natural structures, and to man-made structures are reviewed. Agricultural damages include field releveling, ditch repair and well damage. Damages to transportational facilities include highways, bridges, pipelines, and railroads. Damages to domestic and urban structures are suggested. Questionnaires, interviews and on-site inspections were used to collect information on land subsidence damages in the study area.