• An Investigation of Colorado River Trips: A User Study

      Boster, Mark A.; Gum, Russell L.; Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1972-05-06)
      Increased useer intensity of the Colorado River through Grand Canyon National Park and Monument required the national park service and the Colorado River outfitters association to adopt new policies to improve the quality of river trips and to protect the river. This study was undertaken to gain a greater awareness and understanding of visitor expectations, perceptions, interactions, satisfactions and dissatisfactions by analysis of response to a questionnaire mailed to a random sample of 2,622 past river runners from which a 65 percent return was received. Analysis of individual question tabulation and multivariate data-cluster analysis were performed. Users found crowding or user density to be at least tolerable. The largest group of runners were average in wilderness or other activities, and low relative to less strenuous activities. A large group of runners had relatively little experience in the wilderness. A large group of runners enjoyed the trip, desired more regulations, and were moderate about taking more trips. A large group rated the trip as a wilderness adventure which provided the opportunity to 'get away'. Cluster analysis is shown to be a useful tool of policy-making institutions.
    • Some Legal Problems of Urban Runoff

      Holub, Hugh; College of Law, University of Arizona, Tucson (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1972-05-06)
      Pressure is being brought to bear on national resources of air, earth, and water in the growing cities in the arid southwest. Legal questions involved in capturing urban runoff and putting it to a beneficial use are examined. Urbanization of a watershed results in a 3 to 5 fold increase in runoff amounts. Legal aspects include tort liability from floods, water rights to the increased flows, land use restrictions along banks and flood plains, condemnation of land for park development and flowage easements, financing problems, zoning applications, and coordination of governmental bodies responsible for parks, storm drainage and related services. Urban runoff is the most obvious legal problem in the tort liability area. It appears feasible to divert small quantities of water from urban wastes for recreational uses which provide flood control benefits. It appears that municipalities could appropriate increased flows caused by urbanization. The ultimate legal questions remain to be resolved by legislation, litigation or extension of the appropriative system.