Browsing Hydrology and Water Resources in Arizona and the Southwest, Volume 02 (1972) by Subjects
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Bed Material Characteristics and Transmissions Losses in an Ephemeral StreamAn average of 6 to 13 streamflows from intense summer convective storms occurs annually in the walnut gulch experimental station, 58 square miles in southeastern Arizona. Flows last generally less than 6 hours, and the channels are dry 99 percent of the time. The limiting factors imposed by the geology and geomorphology of the channel to transmission losses of a 6 square mile channel in the station are described. The Precambrian to quaternary geology is outlined, and geomorphology of the channels are described. Volume, porosity and specific yield of alluvium were determined. There is 106 acre-feet of alluvium with a mean specific yield of 28 percent, and a maximum water absorbing capacity of 29 acre-feet or 7 acre-feet per mile of reach. Channel slope is insensitive to changes in geological material beneath it or to changes in flow regime. Channel cross section is highly sensitive to geology and flow regime. Transmission losses were highly correlated to volume of inflow.
A Proposed Model for Flood Routing in Abstracting Ephemeral ChannelsAlmost all runoff from semiarid rangeland watersheds in southern Arizona results from intense highly variable thunderstorm rainfall. Abstractions, or transmission losses, are important in diminishing streamflow, supporting riparian vegetation and providing natural groundwater recharge. A flood routing procedure is developed using data from the walnut gulch experimental watershed, where flood movement and transmission losses are represented by a system using storage in the channel reach as a state variable which determines loss rates. Abstractions are computed as a cascade of general components in linear form. Wide variation in the parameters of this linear model with increasing inflow indicates that a linear relation between losses and storage is probably incorrect for ephemeral channels.
Weather Modification in Arizona, 1971There have been many efforts in recent years to modify thunderstorms through cloud seeding. Collective cloud seeding efforts in Arizona before 1971 are reviewed and an operational convective cloud seeding program carried out in Arizona in the summer of 1971 is analyzed. The comprehensive Santa Catalina cloud seeding experiment (1957 to 1964) was a randomized seeding using silver iodide. Results of this experiment are uncertain as numerous interpretations are possible. Numerous individual experiments from 1966 to 1970 at flagstaff were conducted, with uncertain results. An intensive program of seeding individual cumulus clouds with silver iodide was carried out in the summer of 1971 in central and eastern Arizona. No statistically significant changes were noted. Results of the Catalina experiment imply that seeding decreased rainfall on and downwind from the target. Two other experiments were inconclusive. Nine figures show precipitation patterns.