• Transmissivity Distribution in the Tucson Basin Aquifer

      Supkow, D. J.; Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1972-05-06)
      The distribution of transmissivity within the Tucson basin aquifer, as determined by pumping tests and reviewed in the construction of a digital model of the aquifer, was not totally random in space. Data tended to be distributed normally or log-normally for biased samples of developed wells. A frequency distribution of transmissivity derived from a calibrated digital model is more nearly representative of the real world because the aquifer sample is without bias as the sample constitutes the entire aquifer. Geohydrologic setting, electric analog, and digital models of the basin are discussed. The theory of transmissivity distribution in an arid land alluvial aquifer is developed from Horton's laws of exponential relationship between stream order and drainage network parameters. It is hypothesized that there is an exponential relationship between transmissivity of an alluvial aquifer. A statistical study was made of values derived from the digital model to test the probability density function hypothesized for transmissivity. The mean value is a function of climate and drainage area. These hypotheses require further validation.
    • Groundwater Contamination in the Cortaro Area, Pima County, Arizona

      Schmidt, Kenneth D.; Harshbarger and Associates, Tucson, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1972-05-06)
      High concentrations of nitrate have been found in water samples from irrigation wells north of the Tucson Arizona sewage treatment plant. The plant, which had primary treatment prior to 1951, produced 2,800 acre-feet of effluent in 1940, 4,600 acre-feet in 1950, 16,300 acre-feet in 1960, and 33,000 acre-feet in 1970. Large amounts of treated effluent recharge the groundwater system north of the plant. Sources of nitrate contamination beside sewage effluent may be sewage lagoons, sanitary landfills, meat packing and dairy effluent, septic tanks, and agricultural runoff. Sewage effluent is considered to be the primary source of nitrate contamination in the area. Geologic and flow net analysis indicate that aquifer conditions minimize the effects of sewage effluent contamination. Chloride and nitrate migration appears to be similar in the aquifer. Large-capacity wells were sampled to reflect regional conditions, and chemical hydrographs of chloride and nitrate were analyzed. The seasonal nature of these hydrographs patterns depend on total nitrogen in sewage effluent. Management alternatives are suggested to decrease nitrate pollution by sewage effluent.
    • Subsidence Damage in Southern Arizona

      McCauley, Charles A.; Gum, Russell L.; Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1972-05-06)
      Land is subsiding over a heavily mined aquifer in south central Arizona. Subsidence damages are inventoried to help provide a basis upon which cost studies can be performed to determine actions to lessen the economic impact of these damages. Water table drawdown produces increasing loading stress by three ways: changes in bouyant support of aquifer grains, changes in water table, or both. Two types of subsidence are recognized--one-directional compression, and near surface phenomenon. Damages due to natural structures, and to man-made structures are reviewed. Agricultural damages include field releveling, ditch repair and well damage. Damages to transportational facilities include highways, bridges, pipelines, and railroads. Damages to domestic and urban structures are suggested. Questionnaires, interviews and on-site inspections were used to collect information on land subsidence damages in the study area.
    • The Groundwater Supply of Little Chino Valley

      Matlock, W. G.; Davis, P. R.; Soils, Water and Engineering Department, The University of Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1972-05-06)
      The little chino valley in central Arizona presents an interesting groundwater study as withdrawals exceed recharge. The groundwater surface is falling at about 2 feet per year over most of the area due to large irrigation development. A shallow water table aquifer overlies the artesian aquifer and receives recharge from irrigation runoff. Water quality in the artesian aquifer is excellent. Water quality in the water-table aquifer is poorer, being somewhat higher in total salts, but is suitable for most domestic and agricultural uses. Specific yield for the supply area to the artesian aquifer is 12 percent, with estimated annual recharge of 4000 acre feet and leakage from the aquifer of 2300 acre feet. Water budget and use for the basin is presented with water level and water quality data. The multiphase aquifer system is described and illustrated.
    • Man-Nature Attitudes of Arizona Water Resource Leaders

      Kanerva, Roger A.; King, David A.; Department of Water Resources, Annapolis, Maryland; Department of Watershed Management, University of Arizona, Tucson (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1972-05-06)
      A pilot study is developed to construct a scale which measures attitude towards human management in Arizona. The decision-maker's attitudes toward his man-made and natural environments are investigated in terms of cultural (interior), natural (intermediate), and balanced (exterior) reference positions. A decision-making model consists of stimuli (inputs), decision-making (process function), and response (outputs). The 12 questions developed and applied to Arizona water managers were reduced to 8 capable scalogram analysis. These scaled questions related to favoring physical or emotional needs of man, deciding who gets what or increasing the supply, including behavioral patterns, protecting environmental areas, manipulation of resources as harmful or beneficial, municipal and industrial demands, opinions of groups, and possible overuse of resources. The scale met 5 criteria, which are defined by reproducibility, non-scale pattern of response, number of questions, error ratio and cross checking of responses. This study may provide managers with means of objectively evaluating and improving decisions.
    • Design and Pilot Study of an Arizona Water Information System

      Foster, K. E.; Johnson, J. D.; Office of Arid Land Studies, University of Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1972-05-06)
      Water information systems may have different demands, such as responding to queries about rainfall-runoff relationships, water level data, water quality data and water use. Data required for retrieval may need display, such as a hydrograph. Information systems are reviewed and results of specific water information agencies are reported. Agencies in Arizona are listed with their specific water information need. Development of a water activity file and water information system is outlined for Arizona as a pilot project. Linkage of units within the data system is shown, as is the information system's questionnaire to project leaders. Information currently in the system includes water quality from the state department of health for 450 wells in the Tucson basin, and water level, storage, storage coefficient and transmissivity supplied by the Arizona water commission for the Tucson basin and Avra Valley. Quality of data submitted to the system should be reflected in retrieval for better understanding of the data. This consideration is planned for the coming fiscal year.
    • An Analysis of Yearly Differences in Snowpack Inventory-Prediction Relationships

      Ffolliott, Peter F.; Thorud, David B.; Enz, Richard W.; Department of Watershed Management, University of Arizona, Tucson 85721; USDA Soil Conservation Service, Phoenix, Arizona 85025 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1972-05-06)
      Inventory-prediction relationships between snowpack conditions and forest attributes may be useful in estimating water yields derived from snow, but such relationships are developed usually from source data collected over a short time period. Analyses of long-term data suggest inventory-prediction relationships developed from limited data may have more general application, however. Available records from 18 snow courses in the ponderosa pine type in Arizona provided source data in this study, which was designed to empirically analyze inventory-prediction relationships developed from long-term snow survey records. The primary hypothesis tested and evaluated by statistically analyzing the family of regression equations representing a snow course, was that, given a precipitation input, the distribution of snowpack water equivalent at peak seasonal accumulation is determined by the spatial arrangement of the forest cover, e.g. basal area. Generally 12 of the 18 snow courses evaluated appeared to support the hypothesis, three courses did not, and three courses were considered inconclusive.
    • Hydrology as a Science?

      Dvoracek, M. J.; Evans, D. D.; Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1972-05-06)
      Experimental and historical development of the systematic study of water is briefly reviewed to prove hydrology a science. The hydrology program at the university of Arizona is outlined, and details of the course 'water and the environment' are expounded. This introductory course is intended for non-scientific oriented students at this southwestern university. A reading list is provided for the class, and scientifically designed laboratory experiments are developed. The first semester includes discussion of world water inventory; occurrence of water; hydrologic cycle; interaction of oceanography, meteorology, geology, biology, glaciology, geomorphology and soils; properties of water (physical, biological, chemical), and resources development. The second semester discusses municipal, industrial and agricultural water requirements, surface, ground, imported and effluent water resources management; water law; economic, legal, political, and social water resource planning; ecological impact; patterns of use; and survival of man. Mathematical problems are reviewed along with ecological orientation of students.
    • An Investigation of Colorado River Trips: A User Study

      Boster, Mark A.; Gum, Russell L.; Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1972-05-06)
      Increased useer intensity of the Colorado River through Grand Canyon National Park and Monument required the national park service and the Colorado River outfitters association to adopt new policies to improve the quality of river trips and to protect the river. This study was undertaken to gain a greater awareness and understanding of visitor expectations, perceptions, interactions, satisfactions and dissatisfactions by analysis of response to a questionnaire mailed to a random sample of 2,622 past river runners from which a 65 percent return was received. Analysis of individual question tabulation and multivariate data-cluster analysis were performed. Users found crowding or user density to be at least tolerable. The largest group of runners were average in wilderness or other activities, and low relative to less strenuous activities. A large group of runners had relatively little experience in the wilderness. A large group of runners enjoyed the trip, desired more regulations, and were moderate about taking more trips. A large group rated the trip as a wilderness adventure which provided the opportunity to 'get away'. Cluster analysis is shown to be a useful tool of policy-making institutions.