Proceedings of the Hydrology section of the Annual Meeting of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science. Full text manuscripts of work presented. Research related to water resources, water management, and hydrologic studies primarily focused regionally on southwestern US.

Volume 13. Proceedings of the 1983 Meetings of the Arizona Section - American Water Resources Assn. and the Hydrology Section - Arizona - Nevada Academy of Science.

April 16, 1983, Flagstaff, Arizona


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Recent Submissions

  • Ground Water Contamination of the Estes Landfill, Phoenix, Arizona

    Budzinski, Joan; Angell, James; City of Phoenix; Arizona Department of Health Services (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1983-04-16)
    The ground water contamination potential of the Estes Landfill, Phoenix, Arizona has been evaluated by the City of Phoenix and the Arizona Dept. of Health Services. The landfill is located in a recharge zone of the Salt River Valley aquifer. The aquifer is under water table conditions. The depth to ground water ranges from 80 feet to 15 feet. Ground water monitoring wells were installed up- gradient and down -gradient from the landfill. Ground water samples collected from the wells during flow events of the Salt River indicated leachate production from the landfill; a mound of ground water develops and intrudes the solid waste. The leachate characteristics include volatile organics and heavy metals: vinyl chloride, trichloroethylene and barium. Analysis of solid waste borings indicated only small quantities of organics and heavy metals. Currently the ground water is used for industrial and agricultural purposes. However, the ground water could be used as a domestic water supply because it has an acceptable ambient water quality. Ground water monitoring is continuing with the intent of using the data to design a leachate migration control system for the landfill and to distinguish contaminants from an adjacent landfill.
  • Virus Survival in Groundwater

    Yates, M. V.; Gerba, C. P.; Department of Microbiology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1983-04-16)
  • Virus Fate in Groundwater

    Gerba, Charles P.; Departments of Microbiology, and Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1983-04-16)
  • Evaluation of Groundwater Methodologies in the Tucson Copper Mining District

    Postillion, Frank G.; Esposito, David M.; Pima Association of Governments, Tucson, Arizona; Tucson Active Management Area, Arizona Department of Water Resources (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1983-04-16)
    The Upper Santa Cruz Basin Mines Task Force implemented a two year groundwater monitoring program in response to recommendations of an earlier investigation. The work program included monitoring several copper mines' tailing ponds and wells 15-20 miles south of Tucson. ASARCO mine was monitored to determine the source of high sulfates and TOS in the groundwater in the vicinity of the ASARCO ponds. A network of twelve sampling sites was sampled quarterly to look at water quality trends over time. One additional monitor well was drilled at the base of ASARCO's newest pond. The Anamax groundwater monitoring program consisted of investigating changes in water levels and water quality in the vicinity of its two tailing ponds to determine the hydrologic impacts of the ponds. The Duval program consisted of a network of thirteen monitor and seven interceptor wells. It was designed to determine the effectiveness of the interceptor wells as a management practice for preventing migration of mineralized tailing pond seepage to downgradient areas. The programs are compared in relation to their relative merits and their effectiveness in determining the groundwater quality impacts of the tailings ponds.
  • Computer Simulation of Saltwater Intrusion

    Contractor, Dinshaw M.; University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1983-04-16)
  • Volatile Organic Ground Water Contamination in the Tucson Airport Super Fund Area, Tucson, Arizona

    Eberhardt, Sandra; Beilke, Pamela; Angell, James; Arizona Department of Health Services (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1983-04-16)
    The Tucson Airport Super Fund Area is currently being investigated by the Environmental Protection Agency, the Arizona Dept. of Health Services, the City of Tucson and the Arizona Dept. of Water Resources for volatile organics and heavy metal ground water contamination. The volatile organics include trichloroethylene (TCE), trichloroethane (TCA), dichloroethylene (DCE) and heavy metals, primarily chromium. The area is defined as north of Los Reales Rd. to distinguish this contamination from the US Air Force Plant No. 44 contamination south of Los Reales Rd. The investigation includes defining the hydrogeology, the extent of ground water contamination and potential contamination sources. The aquifer being contaminated is located in the Upper Santa Cruz Basin and is the principal source of domestic water for the City of Tucson. The area of concern currently contains 177 water wells; 24 of these wells are contaminated with TCE concentrations ranging from 5 ug /1 to greater than 400 ug /l. This includes 6 City of Tucson public supply wells. There are currently 6 potential contamination sources being investigated. The first phase of Super Fund will enable the State and City governments to collect and analyze data which will be used for remedial action.
  • Application of Chlorine Stable Isotope Analysis to Hydrogeology

    Kaufman, Ron; Bentley, Harold; Davis, Stanley; Long, Austin; University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1983-04-16)
  • Stable Isotopes and Ground-Water Chemistry as Indicators of Mountain Front Recharge, Tucson Basin, Pima County, Arizona

    Mohrbacher, Carl; University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1983-04-16)
    The relative importance of mountain front recharge as compared to total recharge was determined for a portion of the Tucson basin aquifer margin by interpretation of chemical and isotopic data. Concentrations of 180/160 lower than 6 -10.7 ⁰/00 as compared with a background of about 6 -9.3 ⁰/00 in ground water from the base of the mountains in the gneissic rock suggest the presence of recharge from significantly higher elevations. The trilinear diagram of major ions dissolved in ground water from 123 wells in the Santa Catalina foothills indicates three water types. Water from wells in gneissic rock is high in sodium and potassium content and low in calcium and magnesium. Wells in the gypsiferous Pantano Formation yield water high in sulfates. The majority of wells in the study area, which are along major streams and in the regional aquifer, have calcium carbonate type water. Their chemistry indicates only minor contributions from the gneissic mountain block and the underlying Pantano Formation. Funding for this project came from the Spanish Project Register T377017.
  • Subsurface Production of Chlorine-36 and Its Impact on Ground Water Dating

    Kuhn, Mark W.; Davis, Stanley N.; Zito, Richard; Bentley, Harold W.; University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1983-04-16)
    Chlorine-36 is an important radioisotope with which to date old ground water. The initial chlorine-36 in ground water originates in the atmosphere by cosmic ray spallation of argon-40. Following precipitation and infiltration processes, the natural decay of this radioisotope is then used to date ground water. One must consider, however, the production of chlorine-36 in the subsurface. The production reaction of most interest is ³⁵C1 + neutron → ³⁶C1 + gamma. Buildup of chlorine-36 in the subsurface can result from cosmic ray secondary neutrons near the surface and natural radioactivity produced neutrons below the surface. These production mechanisms, if not taken into consideration, will contribute to the error in chlorine-36 age determinations. To predict subsurface production rates, field measurements were made of thermal neutron fluxes for various geologic materials and depths below the surface. Thermal neutron fluxes were found to vary by more than three orders of magnitude. Theoretical calculations of neutron flux were compared to filed measurements. Estimates of chlorine-36 production rates were then calculated and compared to measured values of chlorine-36 in very old ground water, where decay rates have been hypothesized to be equal to production rates.
  • Models of Indoor and Outdoor Water Demand for Single Family Residences in Tucson, Arizona

    Woodard, Gary C.; Rasmussen, Todd C.; Division of Economic and Business Research, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1983-04-16)
    Structural models for single family residential water demand in Tucson, Arizona are identified using cross-sectional data from the 1980 census. Indoor and outdoor water usage are modeled separately. Indoor water demand appears to be a simple function of household size and fraction of the population that are children. Outdoor water demand is a function of several variables, including length of residence in the area and lot size. The indoor and outdoor models are shown to be significantly different. The impact of the results on forecasting water demand is discussed.
  • Tucson's Needs for Central Arizona Project Storage

    Davis, Steven E.; Tucson Water, Tucson, Arizona 85726 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1983-04-16)
    The future acceptance and utilization of Central Arizona Project water by the City of Tucson Water Utility present many complex technical, economic, institutional, and environmental problems. Since Congressional adoption of the Colorado River Basin Project Act in 1968, Tucson Water engineers have supported the concept of a large CAP raw water storage reservoir near Cat Mountain west of the City. The United States Bureau of Reclamation, in its Stage Two planning for Phase B of the Tucson Aqueduct, has identified four potential storage sites, including the Cat Mountain location, for economic and environmental evaluation in conjunction with two basic aqueduct alignments. Engineers of the municipal water utility have utilized available computer tools to develop a preferred CAP delivery location and elevation economically advantageous to water rate payers. This paper discusses the various factors associated with Tucson's projected need for CAP water storage including reliability, operational flexibility, water quality, shortage, and power management. Each of these factors will affect the degree to which the water utility can successfully assimilate Central Arizona Project water into its groundwater supply system. Although a decision regarding storage location and volume has been postponed for the present, the initial years of CAP usage by the City of Tucson will provide sufficient test to justify the decision for no storage or prove its necessity.
  • A Hierarchal Model for Arizona's Water Resources

    Buras, Nathan; Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1983-04-16)
    Arizona's water resources system consists primarily of four active management areas (Tucson, Phoenix, Pinal and Prescott), the Central Arizona Project, and the Salt River Project. The problem of water allocation among user categories involves pumping from aquifers and diversions of surface flows. In systems less complex than Arizona, allocation policies may appear obvious. In this case, however, a two-level hierarchical management model is proposed to control water allocation to users: the active management areas as a lower echelon, and the Arizona Department of Water Resources at the higher level. A system theoretic approach combined with recent developments in the decentralized control theory are proposed to be included in the model. A significant characteristic of the proposed model is the ability to consider possible interactions among the active management areas as a result of policy decisions at the State level. A dynamic optimization model based on a state space formulation with total energy required as the objective function is solved for each of the subsystems. Detailed information thus generated at the regional level is then appropriately aggregated for statewide decision making. An iterative algorithm is suggested.
  • Water Harvesting: An Alternative Use for Retired Farmlands

    Karpiscak, Martin M.; Foster, Kennith E.; Rawles, Leslie R.; Office of Arid Lands Studies, College of Agriculture, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1983-04-16)
  • Water Balance Calculations, Water Use Efficiency, and Aboveground Net Production

    Lane, L. J.; Stone, J. J.; USDA-ARS, Tucson, Arizona 85705 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1983-04-16)
    A discrete form of the water balance equation is used to illustrate the interaction among precipitation, runoff, percolation below the root zone, bare soil evaporation, plant transpiration, and plant available soil moisture. Under rangeland conditions, water availability is often the limiting factor in plant survival and growth. Therefore, the water balance equation is used, together with soils data and water use efficiency factors, to estimate annual aboveground net primary production of perennial vegetation.
  • Influence of Slash Windows on Streamflow

    Baker, Malchus B., Jr.; Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Flagstaff, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1983-04-16)
    Although the effect cannot be isolated, removal of slash windrows has apparently caused some reduction in annual water yield response from a cleared ponderosa pine watershed. Removal of the slash windrows has eliminated any influence on snow distribution, retention, and melting and has also eliminated any possible influence on losses to soil water recharge and on runoff efficiency of the watershed.
  • Time-Space Effects of Openings in Arizona Forests on Snowpacks

    Ffolliott, Peter F.; School of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1983-04-16)
    Forest openings affect a snowpack during both accumulation and melt phases. At any point in time, a snowpack is the integrated result of all accumulation, redistribution, and melt processes that have taken place before the time of measurement. Since snowpacks do not always have distinct accumulation and melt phases, it is difficult to determine the effect that an opening will have on a snowpack regime. This paper describes an analysis of the effects of openings in Arizona ponderosa pine forests on snowpacks in and adjacent to the openings, using readily available input variables.
  • Runoff Estimates for Thunderstorm Rainfall on Small Rangeland Watersheds

    Simanton, J. R.; Osborn, H. B.; USDA-ARS, Southwest Rangeland Watershed Research Center, Tucson, AZ 85705 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1983-04-16)
    Almost all runoff from small rangeland watersheds in the Southwest is the result of intense thunderstorm rainfall, and the variability of this rainfall is an important runoff-influencing factor in such areas where high intensity rainfall dominates watershed hydrology. Thunderstorm runoff estimates for small rangeland watersheds can be made using a multitude of estimating techniques ranging from simple table and graph procedures to utilizing high-speed computers, and even the most sophisticated models greatly simplify the rainfall input. In this paper, the combined effects of rainfall quantity and intensity, and the rainfall energy factor, EI, in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), were analyzed, and simple procedures for estimating semiarid rangeland runoff volumes were developed. Equally good correlations with runoff volumes were found for EI, and for total storm rainfall times maximum rainfall intensities for 5, 10, and 30 minutes and the square of the maximum 60-minute rainfall.
  • Stock Tank Characteristics and Performance in the Beaver Creek Watershed, North-Central Arizona

    Hughbanks, Julia; Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1983-04-16)
    The Beaver Creek Watershed is located in southern Coconino and southeastern Yavapai Counties, Arizona. This 472 square mile watershed contributes to Beaver Creek which flows into the Verde River. The objectives of this study were: 1) to monitor a network of stock tanks in the watershed on a bi-weekly basis to document seasonal fluctuations in water levels over one year; 2) to investigate the impact of stock tanks on local hydrology by determining the number of times the tanks fill during one year; and 3) to determine a set of dependent variables which would quantify stock tank performance, and a set of independent variables representing characteristics of the tanks and their drainage basins which could affect the performance of the tanks. The relative importance of each of these independent variables in influencing tank performance was then determined through statistical analysis.
  • Importance of Short Duration Rainfall Intensities

    Solomon, Rhey M.; Maxwell, James R.; Schmidt, Larry J.; USDA Forest Service, Albuquerque, New Mexico (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1983-04-16)
    Flood flows and water quality in the Southwest are roust dramatically influenced by short, intense rainstorms. Runoff from these storms has been modeled with some success. One key element that has often been overlooked, however, is the importance of intra-storm rainfall distribution on runoff response. Actual storms were modeled for small experimental watersheds in the Southwest using different time increments of intra-storm rainfall. Increments of 5 minutes or less proven satisfactory for accurate hydrograph simulation. As increments became longer than 5 minutes, the ability to simulate actual hydrographs became increasingly difficult. Increments of 30 minutes or longer proved unacceptable for most storms. Hydrologic models must be sensitive to short time increments of intra-storm rainfall to accurately predict peak flows in the Southwest. Watershed treatments will be more cost-effective if their design considers intense bursts of intra-storm rainfall in addition to total storm volume.