Proceedings of the Hydrology section of the Annual Meeting of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science. Full text manuscripts of work presented. Research related to water resources, water management, and hydrologic studies primarily focused regionally on southwestern US.

Volume 16. Proceedings of the 1986 Meetings of the Arizona Section - American Water Resources Association, Hydrology Section - Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science and the Arizona Hydrological Society.

April 19, 1986, Glendale Community College, Glendale, Arizona


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Recent Submissions

  • Streamflow Response to Converting Arizona Chaparral in a Mosaic Pattern

    Hibber, A. R.; Davis, E. A.; USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Forestry Sciences Laboratory, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1986-04-19)
    Converting 55% of an Arizona chaparral watershed to grass in a mosaic pattern, giving major consideration to wildlife habitat values, water quality, and landscape esthetics, produced an average of 68 mm of extra streamflow per year from the watershed during a 4-year evaluation period. When the increased streamflow was prorated to the area actually treated, the increase amounted to 124 mm. Increases in streamflow were largest in winter, and streamflow was extended considerably longer into the dry periods than before treatment.
  • Riparianlands are Wetlands: The Problem of Applying Eastern American Concepts and Criteria to Environments in the North American Southwest

    Lowe, Charles H.; Johnson, R. Roy; Bennett, Peter S.; Biology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721; National Park Service/University of Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1986-04-19)
  • Residential Water Conservation Progress Report for Casa Del Agua

    Foster, Kennith E.; Karpiscak, Martin M.; DeCook, K. James; Brittain, Richard; Gerba, Charles P.; Parton, Michael C.; Rawles, R. Leslie; University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1986-04-19)
    Casa del Agua, a research and demonstration water conservation house, was opened to the public in September 1985. This typical 3 bedroom residence has been re-landscaped and retrofitted with storage for rainwater and graywater and low water use plumbing fixtures including toilets. A unique graywater treatment system employs two 300 gallon aquacells and a sand filter to upgrade graywater quality. The house is occupied by a family of three and detailed data are being obtained on water input, use and quality. Qualitative measures include microbiological, physical and chemical characteristics of filtered rainwater and treated, untreated and stored graywater. A model of water efficiency for dwelling units known as the "W-Index" is being formulated as a quantitative measure of residential water conservation options. The numerical evaluation of weighting of the index components will be aided by means of data generated in the monitoring program at Casa del Agua. A nomogram has been developed to provide a ready mechanism to determine the necessary storage volume for rainwater in terms of a specified availability of supply, catchment area, and rate of water use.
  • Twenty-Five Years of Snow Research in Arizona: A Preliminary Report

    Ffolliott, Peter F.; School of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1986-04-19)
  • Rainfall pH in Tombstone, Arizona, 1968-81

    Bohn, Hinrich L.; Schreiber, Henry; Cooper, Loel R.; Department of Soil and Water Science, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721; USDA-SEA Southwest Rangeland Watershed Research Center, Tucson, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1986-04-19)
    Rainfall pH was measured at the Tombstone, Arizona, USDA-ARS station from 1968 to 1981. The summer rains were more acidic than the winter rains. The pH of the summer rains was about pH 5, the winter rains about pH 6, with considerable variation. The summer rain pH increased gradually over this period, coinciding with a general decrease of sulfur emissions from the nearest copper smelter at Douglas, Arizona, and from' all smelters in Arizona. The ionic composition of the rainwater was quantitively uncertain due to numerous changes in analytical procedures. The acidity was very roughly related to sulfur content. The inverse relation between acidity and Ca and Na content was somewhat clearer.
  • Microbial Quality of Gray Water for Reuse

    Rose, Joan B.; Sun, Gwo-Shing,1959-; Weimer, Bart C.; Silverman, Rod S.; Gerba, Charles P.; Sinclair, Norval A.; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1986-04-19)
    As the scarcity of water and the price of municipal water inevitably increase, gray water reuse may become an inexpensive and viable alternative for such purposes as irrigation, lawn maintenance and water closet flushing. However, some problems do exist. The microbial and chemical content of gray water includes agents that may present public health problems. The purpose of this study was to determine the general microbial composition of gray water using standard plate counts and selective media at specific sites (shower/bath, wash cycle and rinse cycle of a clothes washing machine) and the general chemical and physical properties of gray water at these same sites (phosphate, ammonia, chloride, pH, TDS and turbidity). Samples were taken from a diverse group of families with and without children (1 ½ - 9 years). Standard plate count bacteria ranged from 10⁵ to 10¹⁰ colony forming units (CFU)₄/100 ml. Shower and bath water contained an average of 10⁴ to 10⁶ CFU/100 ml of coliforms. Failies with children produced wash cycle gray water containing 10⁶ CFU /100 ml of fecal coliforms. Ammonia concentrations varied proportionally with bacterial concentrations while phosphate varied inversely with bacterial growth. Bacterial numbers increased one order of magnitude during storage of gray water.
  • Water Supply Planning for the Bi-National Region of Nogales, Sonora and Arizona

    Fogel, Martin; Tecle, Aregai; School of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1986-04-19)
  • Multiobjective Wastewater Management Planning in a Semiarid Region

    Tecle, Aregai; Fogel, Martin; School of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85712 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1986-04-19)
  • Effects of the Green Valley Wastewater Treatment Facility Upon Groundwater Quality

    Postillion, Frank G.; Block, Michael W.; Merz, August; Pima Association of Governments, Tucson, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1986-04-19)
    The Green Valley Wastewater Treatment Facility (GVWWTF) is about 20 miles south of Tucson, Arizona. Locally, the aquifer consists of interbedded sands, silts and gravels. Depth to water near the facility is about 160 feet with transmissivity ranging from 32,000 to 48,000 gpd /ft. Ground water quality has historically been poor near the facility due to deep percolation of irrigation return flow. With the retirement of farm land, however, ground water quality has improved considerably. The only problem with well water downgradient of GVWWTF has been with total coliform where several samples exceeded public drinking water standards. Current inflow of about 1.1 mgd will increase to 4.5 mgd by 2005. Flow net and mass balance analyses indicate effluent recharge by percolation beds will increase from 1060 AF /year to 4130 AF /year during this period. A mass balance model predicts TDS will increase from about 585 to 615 mg/l, nitrate-N will increase from 9.2 to 9.9 mg/l, chloride will increase from 50 to 75 mg/1, and sulfate will decrease by 25 mg/l to 115 mg/l. Further study of pond disinfection for prevention of microbiological contamination is suggested. Additionally, effluent reuse and an enhanced monitoring program including upgradient and downgradient wells are encouraged.
  • Microbial Contamination of Groundwater by Landfills: Risk Assessment

    Gerba, Charles P.; Departments of Microbiology and Immunology and Nutrition and Food Science, University of arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1986-04-19)
  • Virus Dispersion in a Coarse Porous Medium

    Grondin, Jerry; Gerba, Charles P.; Department of Hydrology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721; Department of Microbiology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1986-04-19)
  • An Agroforestry Demonstration in Avra Valley of Southeastern Arizona

    Fowler, Wm. Patrick; Ffolliott, Peter F.; School of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1986-04-19)