• Early Public Involvement in Federal Water Resource Projects

      Johnson, Freda; Thuss, Michael; Rillito Consulting Group, Tucson; Tucson Urban Study, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1979-04-13)
    • Sediment Production from a Chaparral Watershed in Central Arizona

      Hook, Thomas E.; Hibbert, Alden R.; Department of Geography, Arizona State University, Tempe; USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. Research Work Unit, Tempe (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1979-04-13)
      Sediment production from two chaparral watersheds in central Arizona during a period of heavy winter rainfall in 1978 was compared with sediment production over a 14-year period (1964-78). Results indicate sediment production from chaparral is primarily the result of seasonal periods of heavy precipitation and runoff and not from ephemeral summer rainstorms. Sediments from 300 acres (122 ha) above a newly constructed stock watering tank were produced within a few days time in the late winter of 1978 at an accelerated annual rate of 41.1 ft /acre (2.9 m /ha). The sediments came mostly from cutting in channel alluvium in upstream tributaries where the sediments are presumed to have accumulated from downslope creep, dry ravel, and overland flow produced by ephemeral, convective rainstorms. The accelerated rate of sediment production was more than 4 times the average annual rate of 9.8 ft /acre (0.7 m /ha) determined from 14 years of cumulative sediment deposits in a stock tank constructed in 1964.
    • Winter Precipitation on a Southeastern Arizona Rangeland Watershed

      Osborn, H. B.; Koehler, R. B.; Simanton, J. R.; USDA Southwest Watershed Research Center, Tucson, Arizona 85705 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1979-04-13)
    • The Effects of Second-Home and Resort-Town Development on Stream Discharge in Navajo and Apache Counties, Arizona

      Hogan, T. D.; Bond, M. E.; Bureau of Business and Economic Research, College of Business Administration, Arizona State University; College of Business Administration, Memphis State University (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1979-04-13)
    • Ground Water in the Santa Cruz Valley

      Flug, Marshall; Soils, Water and Engineering Department, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1979-04-13)
    • An Interactive Model of Suspended Sediment Yield on Forested Watersheds in Central Arizona

      Rasmussen, William O.; Ffolliott, Peter F.; School of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1979-04-13)
    • Health Effect of Application of Wastewater to Land

      Goff, James D.; Boyle Engineering Corporation, Newport Beach, California (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1979-04-13)
      There is a renewed interest in land application of treated effluent in both the states of Arizona and Nevada. Conservation of water and energy can be obtained by this treatment method. Data generated by the design engineer includes health effects related to heavy metals, bacteria, and aerosal spray. Examples of recent nuisance and consequences are noted. The application of this practice requires a case by case engineering and management analysis.
    • An Examination of the Buckhorn-Mesa Watersheds Environmental Impact Statement (U.S.D.A., S.C.S., 1978): A Look at State-of-the-Art Reports

      Altshul, Dale A.; Water Resources Research Center, University of Arizona, Tucson (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1979-04-13)
      The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 was written with the intent of fostering a spirit of harmony in the day to day operations of Federal agencies with the environmental concerns voiced by the general populace. To examine how Federal agencies have assimilated E.I.S. procedures and guidelines a typical report was reviewed. In general, compliance with environmental law and procedural guidelines was found to be adequate. In some ways, particularly in assessment of Cultural Resource Impact, the statement was exceptional in its evaluation. However, the sections of the report detailing the benefits and costs of the alternatives was not up to the standards expected in an E.I.S. Because the benefits and costs were not calculated in consistent units and the no action alternative was not adequately examined, the entire alternatives section is called to question. By re-evaluating the data provided in the E.I.S. in consistent units, it was found that the alternative selected had neither the highest benefit/ cost ratio nor the lowest environmental impact. It is concluded that alternatives should be as fully evaluated as the project itself in order to integrate environmental considerations into the overall planning process.
    • Trends in Arizona Water Service Organizations: A Comparative Summary

      Emel, Jacque L.; Bradley, Michael D.; DeCook, K. James; Water Resources Research Center, University of Arizona, Tucson; Water Resources Research Center, University of Arizona, Tucson (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1979-04-13)
    • Solar Powered Irrigation Pumping Experiment

      Larson, Dennis L.; Sands, C. D., II; Soils, Water and Engineering Department, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1979-04-13)
    • Impact of Development on Stream Flows

      Trotta, Paul D.; Rodgers, James J.; Vandivere, William B.; College of Engineering and Technology, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona; U.S. Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest & Range Experimental Station, Tempe, Arizona; College of Natural & Renewable Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1979-04-13)
    • Evaluation of Water Management Systems for the Sonoita Creek Watershed

      Robotham, Hugh B.; Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1979-04-13)
    • Central Arizona Project Concept of Operation

      Springer, Frank C., Jr.; Graves, P. E.; Graves, Albert L.; Operations and Maintenance Branch, Arizona Projects Office, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Phoenix, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1979-04-13)
      The Central Arizona Project (CAP), presently under construction, will convey Arizona's remaining entitlement of Colorado River water to three central Arizona counties. As a result of the recently completed CAP Real-Time Operations Study, a concept of operation has been developed. The concept of operations defines three types of operation beginning with an initial manned operation in 1985, a transition operation, and a permanent operation using a computer assisted remote control system. Under the permanent operation, computer models will be run in advance to define weekly and daily pumping plant and check gate schedules.
    • Augmenting Water Supply for Home Irrigation (Poster Session)

      Popkin, Barney P.; Water Resources Research Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1979-04-13)
      Low rainfall and humidity, and high evapotranspiration, make irrigation necessary for domestic plant growth in the American Southwest. Irrigation supplies are limited. A large percentage of potable water used in Southwestern homes is used for home irrigation. Another large percentage Is returned to sewers. Water and sewer fees are increasing because of rapid urban expansion and increased water-quality standards. As fees increase, supplemental home irrigation sources become attractive and are sought. Major supplemental water sources are grey water, harvested runoff, and roof runoff. The amount of grey water depends on family size and habits. The amount of harvested runoff depends on land size and slope, soil's and material's properties, and rainfall. The amount of roof runoff depends on roof size and geometry, and rainfall. The quality of these sources is generally suitable for home irrigation. Engineering systems are required to use supplemental home irrigation water. The most preferred systems will have low capital expenditure and low energy requirements. A large and significant reduction in municipal costs and services is possible if supplemental home irrigation water is developed. Small-scale analysis indicates that costs are favorable for supplemental irrigation systems. A suggested research program emphasizes field trials and demonstrations which test design, operation, maintenance, and economics, as well as public and institutional acceptance.
    • Land Use Planning for the San Tiburcio Watershed

      Armijo, Roberto; Bulfin, Robert; Departmento de Recursos Naturales, Universidad Autonoma Agraria Antonio Narro, Saltillo, Mexico; Department of Systems and Industrial Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1979-04-13)
      Land use planning, within the context of socio-economic development, is characterized by many conflicting objectives. This paper defines ojectives for the San Tiburcio watershed in northern Mexico. A mixed multiobjective programming model is developed. The model serves as an aid to a group of decision makers in choosing a "satisficing" feasible set of non-mutually exclusive land use alternatives. The paper concludes with a discussion of possible solution techniques.
    • Visual Impacts: Perception and Modification of Surface Mining Operations on the Black Mesa

      Rodiek, Jon (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1979-04-13)
      Scientists and industrialists are now seeking from their reclamation brethren an explanation of the new criteria and standards which will enable all of us to recognize a visually reclaimed site when we see one. To do so may require more of the viewer than the ability to perceive visually. One must understand the larger game in which reclamation is played.
    • How to Select Evapotranspiration Models (Abstract only)

      van Hylckama, T. E. A.; Turner, R. M.; Grasz, O. M. (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1979-04-13)
    • Tests on Arizona's New Flood Estimates

      Reich, Brian M.; Osborn, Herbert B.; Baker, Malchus C., Jr.; Planning and Resources Development, Pima County Flood Control District, Tucson; Southwest Watershed Research Center, USDA, Tucson, Arizona; Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. Flagstaff (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1979-04-13)
      A method for estimating regional flood frequency was prepared by R. H. Roeske of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 1978 for the Arizona Department of Transportation. Hydrologists may wish to use these regression equations for estimating flood peaks or for other purposes in development or flood control engineering. Many of those needs are for watersheds smaller than 10 sq. mi., however, for which USGS measurements are scarce. Records from two groups of small experimental watersheds near Tombstone and Flagstaff, one gaged by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Science and Education Administration and the other by the Forest Service, were used to independently evaluate the generalized Arizona relationships in specific applications to small watershed work. The new design floods for each experimental watershed were compared with estimates made using the USGS equation for two of the six flood frequency regions (FFR) in Arizona. The study showed that use of the generalized regional curve may underestimate flood peaks. Deviations from the curve can be caused by land use changes, differences in analytical methods, and use of short records.
    • A Multiattribute Approach to the Reclamation of Stripmined Lands

      Brinck, Fritz H.; Duckstein, Lucien; Thames, John L.; University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1979-04-13)
      A multiattribute utility function is used to model preferences on outcomes of alternative reclamation schemes for stripmined lands, using Arizona and Wyoming examples. Each scheme should at least help restore land to its premining value, and is composed of three sets of actions: mining operations, preparations for postmining land use, and mitigating actions. Grazing and runoff augmentation are examples of postmining land use goals, and mitigating actions may be measures to protect the environment like pollution control in runoff or infiltration. Conflicting objectives are involved, including the maintenance of sufficient coal production, the alleviation of detrimental environmental effects, and the minimization of loss. Since the environmental effects are fraught with uncertainty, a multiobjective decision-making scheme under uncertainty is set up to analyze the problem. The decision model ranks alternative reclamation schemes on the basis of the preference function of a group decision maker, each member of which assessing a separate subset of single attribute utility functions.
    • Negotiating the Water Future of Pima County, Arizona

      Thuss, Michael; Tucson Urban Study, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1979-04-13)