• Augmenting Water Supply for Home Irrigation (Poster Session)

      Popkin, Barney P.; Water Resources Research Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1979-04-13)
      Low rainfall and humidity, and high evapotranspiration, make irrigation necessary for domestic plant growth in the American Southwest. Irrigation supplies are limited. A large percentage of potable water used in Southwestern homes is used for home irrigation. Another large percentage Is returned to sewers. Water and sewer fees are increasing because of rapid urban expansion and increased water-quality standards. As fees increase, supplemental home irrigation sources become attractive and are sought. Major supplemental water sources are grey water, harvested runoff, and roof runoff. The amount of grey water depends on family size and habits. The amount of harvested runoff depends on land size and slope, soil's and material's properties, and rainfall. The amount of roof runoff depends on roof size and geometry, and rainfall. The quality of these sources is generally suitable for home irrigation. Engineering systems are required to use supplemental home irrigation water. The most preferred systems will have low capital expenditure and low energy requirements. A large and significant reduction in municipal costs and services is possible if supplemental home irrigation water is developed. Small-scale analysis indicates that costs are favorable for supplemental irrigation systems. A suggested research program emphasizes field trials and demonstrations which test design, operation, maintenance, and economics, as well as public and institutional acceptance.
    • Central Arizona Project Concept of Operation

      Springer, Frank C., Jr.; Graves, P. E.; Graves, Albert L.; Operations and Maintenance Branch, Arizona Projects Office, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Phoenix, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1979-04-13)
      The Central Arizona Project (CAP), presently under construction, will convey Arizona's remaining entitlement of Colorado River water to three central Arizona counties. As a result of the recently completed CAP Real-Time Operations Study, a concept of operation has been developed. The concept of operations defines three types of operation beginning with an initial manned operation in 1985, a transition operation, and a permanent operation using a computer assisted remote control system. Under the permanent operation, computer models will be run in advance to define weekly and daily pumping plant and check gate schedules.
    • Early Public Involvement in Federal Water Resource Projects

      Johnson, Freda; Thuss, Michael; Rillito Consulting Group, Tucson; Tucson Urban Study, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1979-04-13)
    • The Effects of Second-Home and Resort-Town Development on Stream Discharge in Navajo and Apache Counties, Arizona

      Hogan, T. D.; Bond, M. E.; Bureau of Business and Economic Research, College of Business Administration, Arizona State University; College of Business Administration, Memphis State University (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1979-04-13)
    • Evaluation of Water Management Systems for the Sonoita Creek Watershed

      Robotham, Hugh B.; Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1979-04-13)
    • An Examination of the Buckhorn-Mesa Watersheds Environmental Impact Statement (U.S.D.A., S.C.S., 1978): A Look at State-of-the-Art Reports

      Altshul, Dale A.; Water Resources Research Center, University of Arizona, Tucson (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1979-04-13)
      The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 was written with the intent of fostering a spirit of harmony in the day to day operations of Federal agencies with the environmental concerns voiced by the general populace. To examine how Federal agencies have assimilated E.I.S. procedures and guidelines a typical report was reviewed. In general, compliance with environmental law and procedural guidelines was found to be adequate. In some ways, particularly in assessment of Cultural Resource Impact, the statement was exceptional in its evaluation. However, the sections of the report detailing the benefits and costs of the alternatives was not up to the standards expected in an E.I.S. Because the benefits and costs were not calculated in consistent units and the no action alternative was not adequately examined, the entire alternatives section is called to question. By re-evaluating the data provided in the E.I.S. in consistent units, it was found that the alternative selected had neither the highest benefit/ cost ratio nor the lowest environmental impact. It is concluded that alternatives should be as fully evaluated as the project itself in order to integrate environmental considerations into the overall planning process.
    • An Exchange System for Precise Measurements of Temperature and Humidity Gradients in the Air Near the Ground

      Gay, L. W.; Fritschen, L. J.; School of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1979-04-13)
      Small differences can be very accurately measured with two sensors if precautions are taken to periodically interchange the sensors between observations. The Bowen ratio model of evapotranspiration requires measurements of air temperature and humidity gradients near the evaporating surface. The gradients are in the order of only 0.1 °C/m or 10 Pa/m. Precision in excess of 0.01 °C/m or 1 Pa/m can be obtained only through laborious calibration and replication of instruments, or through periodic interchange. The design of a simple system for interchanging psychrometers is described. The system will exchange sensors between two levels one meter apart at selected time intervals. The vertical exchange path of this design maintains a constant orientation of the sensors and has important advantages over rotating systems used elsewhere. The principles apply to a variety of measurement problems.
    • Ground Water in the Santa Cruz Valley

      Flug, Marshall; Soils, Water and Engineering Department, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1979-04-13)
    • Health Effect of Application of Wastewater to Land

      Goff, James D.; Boyle Engineering Corporation, Newport Beach, California (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1979-04-13)
      There is a renewed interest in land application of treated effluent in both the states of Arizona and Nevada. Conservation of water and energy can be obtained by this treatment method. Data generated by the design engineer includes health effects related to heavy metals, bacteria, and aerosal spray. Examples of recent nuisance and consequences are noted. The application of this practice requires a case by case engineering and management analysis.
    • How to Select Evapotranspiration Models (Abstract only)

      van Hylckama, T. E. A.; Turner, R. M.; Grasz, O. M. (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1979-04-13)
    • Hydrologic Investigation of the Dry Lake Region in East Central Arizona

      Lemmon, James J.; Schultz, Thomas R.; Young, Don W.; Water Rights Division, Arizona State Land Department, Phoenix, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1979-04-13)
      The Dry Lake Region is located in Navajo County, Arizona, near the southern margin of the Colorado Plateau. The region's internal drainage basin of 160 mi2 is further augmented by 50 mi² of the Phoenix Park Wash drainage. The dominate surface water inflow to the playa is the 12 to 13 MGD of paper pulp mill effluent from Southwest Forest Industries near Snowflake, Arizona. As a result, the playa surface water is now covering several thousand acres. Dry Lake water quality is relatively poor by Arizona Department of Health Services (ADHS) drinking water standards. Ground water in the region is produced from the Coconino Aquifer which is comprised of the Coconino Sandstone and the Kaibab Limestone. The depth to ground water is 400 feet with a saturated zone 100-175 feet thick. Wells in the region yield from 0 to 500 gpm. The presence of the Holbrook Anticline and the Dry Lake Syncline influence both ground water flow direction and artesian conditions. There is concern that the playa may not be suited as an evaporative disposal basin because of the potential influence that karst topography and linear surface features may have on the water balance of the region.
    • Impact of Development on Stream Flows

      Trotta, Paul D.; Rodgers, James J.; Vandivere, William B.; College of Engineering and Technology, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona; U.S. Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest & Range Experimental Station, Tempe, Arizona; College of Natural & Renewable Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1979-04-13)
    • The Impact of Socioeconomic Status on Residential Water Use: A Cross-Section Time-Series Analysis of Tucson, Arizona

      Billings, R. Bruce; Acthe, Donald E.; Department of Economics, University of Arizona; Department of Economics, St. Mary's University of San Antonio (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1979-04-13)
      The impact of a selected set of socioeconomic variables on residential water consumption per household is examined using a combined cross-section time-series analysis by census tract for Tucson, Arizona for 1974, 1975, 1976 and 1977. The estimated income elasticity of demand for water is .23, which means that a 10-percent increase in income produces a 2.3 percent increase in water use. Additionally, the number of persons per household and the percent of households with head age 65 or more also are shown to have a strong positive relationship to water use. New residential units are shown to have a strong tendency to utilize less water than older units, presumable because of a shift away from water using yards. Both Black and Spanish-surnamed dominated areas tend to consume a lower than expected amount of water for their income and family size characteristics, but the coefficients on these variables are not sufficiently strong to accept this relationship.
    • An Interactive Model of Suspended Sediment Yield on Forested Watersheds in Central Arizona

      Rasmussen, William O.; Ffolliott, Peter F.; School of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1979-04-13)
    • Land Use Planning for the San Tiburcio Watershed

      Armijo, Roberto; Bulfin, Robert; Departmento de Recursos Naturales, Universidad Autonoma Agraria Antonio Narro, Saltillo, Mexico; Department of Systems and Industrial Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1979-04-13)
      Land use planning, within the context of socio-economic development, is characterized by many conflicting objectives. This paper defines ojectives for the San Tiburcio watershed in northern Mexico. A mixed multiobjective programming model is developed. The model serves as an aid to a group of decision makers in choosing a "satisficing" feasible set of non-mutually exclusive land use alternatives. The paper concludes with a discussion of possible solution techniques.
    • A Multiattribute Approach to the Reclamation of Stripmined Lands

      Brinck, Fritz H.; Duckstein, Lucien; Thames, John L.; University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1979-04-13)
      A multiattribute utility function is used to model preferences on outcomes of alternative reclamation schemes for stripmined lands, using Arizona and Wyoming examples. Each scheme should at least help restore land to its premining value, and is composed of three sets of actions: mining operations, preparations for postmining land use, and mitigating actions. Grazing and runoff augmentation are examples of postmining land use goals, and mitigating actions may be measures to protect the environment like pollution control in runoff or infiltration. Conflicting objectives are involved, including the maintenance of sufficient coal production, the alleviation of detrimental environmental effects, and the minimization of loss. Since the environmental effects are fraught with uncertainty, a multiobjective decision-making scheme under uncertainty is set up to analyze the problem. The decision model ranks alternative reclamation schemes on the basis of the preference function of a group decision maker, each member of which assessing a separate subset of single attribute utility functions.
    • Negotiating the Water Future of Pima County, Arizona

      Thuss, Michael; Tucson Urban Study, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1979-04-13)
    • Sediment Production from a Chaparral Watershed in Central Arizona

      Hook, Thomas E.; Hibbert, Alden R.; Department of Geography, Arizona State University, Tempe; USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. Research Work Unit, Tempe (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1979-04-13)
      Sediment production from two chaparral watersheds in central Arizona during a period of heavy winter rainfall in 1978 was compared with sediment production over a 14-year period (1964-78). Results indicate sediment production from chaparral is primarily the result of seasonal periods of heavy precipitation and runoff and not from ephemeral summer rainstorms. Sediments from 300 acres (122 ha) above a newly constructed stock watering tank were produced within a few days time in the late winter of 1978 at an accelerated annual rate of 41.1 ft /acre (2.9 m /ha). The sediments came mostly from cutting in channel alluvium in upstream tributaries where the sediments are presumed to have accumulated from downslope creep, dry ravel, and overland flow produced by ephemeral, convective rainstorms. The accelerated rate of sediment production was more than 4 times the average annual rate of 9.8 ft /acre (0.7 m /ha) determined from 14 years of cumulative sediment deposits in a stock tank constructed in 1964.
    • Solar Powered Irrigation Pumping Experiment

      Larson, Dennis L.; Sands, C. D., II; Soils, Water and Engineering Department, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1979-04-13)