Browsing Hydrology and Water Resources in Arizona and the Southwest, Volume 03 (1973) by Subjects
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Competitive Groundwater Usage from the Navajo SandstoneGroundwater modeling is used to theoretically relate mining pumpage of the Navajo Sandstone to declines in the potentiometric surface at Navajo and Hopi Indian community, domestic, and stock usage locations. The shallow wells on top of Black Mesa are shown to be part of a perched water table condition which is dependent upon the hydraulic conductivity of an aquatard known as the Mancos Shale. The isolation of the aquatard allows the shallow wells to be treated as a problem separate from that of the artesian and recharge areas. Computer modeling of the groundwater system is concerned only with those Indian wells which directly tap the Navajo Sandstone in either artesian or free water table areas. The computer simulation developed is a modified version of the basic artesian aquifer routine used by the Illinois State Water Survey. Computer results correspond with the low percentage of storage withdrawal calculated for the artesian area under Black Mesa.
Groundwater Geology of Fort Valley, Coconino County, ArizonaAll groundwater in fort valley is presently found in perched aquifers. The regional water table in the area is estimated to lie at a depth of approximately 1750 feet. Groundwater reservoirs are perched on impermeable clay zones located at the base of alluvial units. Groundwater is also found in highly fractured volcanic zones overlaying impermeable clay zones. Perched aquifers also occur in interflow zones above either impermeable clays or unfractured volcanics. Groundwater in fort valley is the result of infiltration or runoff and from precipitation. This recharge water infiltrates the alluvium or fractured volcanic rocks until an impermeable zone is reached where it becomes perched groundwater. Greatest well yields come from these recharge aquifers; their reliability is largely dependent on precipitation and runoff. Most wells in the fort valley area supply adequate amounts of water for domestic use.
Groundwater Recharge from a Portion of the Santa Catalina MountainsThe geohydrology of a portion of the Santa Catalina Mountains including the definition of aquifer systems in the foothills was studied in order to calculate groundwater recharge to the Tucson basin. This underlying groundwater aquifer is the only source of Tucson, Arizona's water supply. A well network, well logs, geologic profiles, and a water level contour map were used as source information. Recharge was found to occur in some sections of washes and close to the mountains where washes cross or coincide with faults. Significant recharge to sand and gravel aquifers occurs directly through faults and joints. Little of the surface runoff is thought to recharge local aquifers because of low permeability layers beneath the alluvium and the short duration of the flows. Recharge calculation using the Darcy equation was subject to considerable error; but flow net analysis showed the total recharge to be 336 acre-feet per year representing about 50 acre feet per mile of mountain front per year.