• Chemical and Biological Problems in the Grand Canyon

      Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1973-05-05)
      A survey of chemical and bacteriological water quality in the Grand Canyon was undertaken to assess possible health hazards to river travelers. The water quality of the main Colorado River channel is relatively stable with only slight increases in ionic concentration and bacteriological load with respect to distance from Lee Ferry and time over the summer season. The tributary streams show extreme temporal variability in chemical water quality and bacteriological contamination as a result of the summer rain and flood patterns in the tributary canyons. These side streams pose a definite health hazard to unwary river travelers. More extensive sampling is called for to determine the sources of this contamination and to protect the quality of the Grand Canyon experience.
    • Lake Powell Research Project: Hydrologic Research

      Jacoby, Gordon C.; University of California at Los Angeles (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1973-05-05)
      The Lake Powell Research Project is investigating the effects of man's activities on the Southeastern Utah-Northeastern Arizona region. A major portion of this project is devoted to the hydrology of Lake Powell, the largest recent modification in the region. This hydrologic research is separated into the following subprojects and administrative institutions: Subprojects: Streamflow Trends, Evaporation, Bank Storage / Institution: University of California at Los Angeles. Subprojects: Sedimentation, Physical Limnology, Lake Geochemistry / Institution: Dartmouth College. The project is now concluding its first year of full-scale research effort. The UCLA subprojects are aimed at developing an overall water budget for the lake, both on an annual and long -term basis. The Streamflow_trends study indicates that the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) has shifted from a few extraordinarily wet decades in the early 1900's to several relatively dry decades up to the present. Evaporation efforts so far are toward installing a data collection system capable of furnishing data for mass-transfer and energy-budget calculations. The bank-storage study indicates that bank storage constitutes a large fraction of the impounded waters. Secondary as well as primary permeability may be of major importance in bank storage. The Evaporation and Bank Storage subprojects are working in close coordination with the Bureau of Reclamation. The Sedimentation subproject has shown that the rate may be in general agreement with earlier estimates from river flow and suspended sediment data. However, the distribution is affected by sediment dams formed by slumping of canyon wall material. Physical limnology studies indicate the presence of stratifications resulting from thermal and turbidity layers causing complex movements within the lake waters. Field and laboratory efforts in lake geochemical analyses indicate that the precipitation of calcium carbonate may be the most important chemical process in changing the water quality of the lake.