Browsing Hydrology and Water Resources in Arizona and the Southwest, Volume 03 (1973) by Subjects
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Effects of a Wetting Agent on the Infiltration Characteristics of a Ponderosa Pine SoilAn infiltration- wetting agent study, using the wetting agent "WATER-IN", was conducted in the ponderosa pine forest type of east central Arizona. An application rate of 10 gallons of wetting agent per acre was used on bare mineral soil and on ponderosa pine litter. The infiltration rate was measured by a modified North Fork infiltrometer. It was found that "WATER-IN" significantly increased water runoff when applied to litter, but, when applied to bare mineral soil, "WATER-IN" caused a significant increase in water infiltration. The wetting agent did not significantly affect antecedent moisture, soil particle distribution, litter water holding capacity, or litter bulk density. It is presently hypothesized that the increase in water infiltration on treated bare mineral soil is due to a decrease in the average bulk density of the surface inch of soil. The increase in runoff when litter is treated is probably due to an interaction, either physical, chemical, or both, between the humus layer and "WATER-IN ", creating a hydrophobic condition where one did not exist before.
A Preliminary Assessment of Snowfall Interception in Arizona Ponderosa Pine ForestA preliminary assessment and ranking of the relative significance of five processes that may contribute to snow removal from ponderosa pine forest canopies was made, including wind erosion of canopy snow, snowslide from the canopy, stemflow, vapor transport from melt water, and vapor transport of canopy snow. The first three represent delayed delivery rather than net water loss. A snow load index was obtained through use of time lapse photography of the study site canopy, while incoming solar radiation and atmospheric processes were monitored. The snow load index was expressed as a ratio of forest canopy area covered with snow to the total canopy area. Results obtained over a 4-day period following a six-hour snowstorm showed that snow removal by snowslide and wind erosion was of significant importance, while vapor transport of melt water and canopy snow, stemflow, and dripping of melt water was of comparatively minor importance.
Probability Distributions of Snow Course Data for Central ArizonaA preliminary study of probability distributions for use on snowpack accumulation in the central Arizona highlands was made from 22 snow courses selected as having 10 or more years of available records. Due to the frequent occurrence of zero water equivalent value, application of a single continuous probability distribution is precluded. By means of two distributions, however, the snowpack water equivalent can be assessed by a binomial distribution describing the probability of snow, and a lognormal distribution describing the probability of water equivalent. The area chosen for detailed analysis is where the headwaters of many of Arizona's major river systems occur.