• Application of Carbon-14 Ground-Water Ages in Calibrating a Flow Model of the Tucson Basin Aquifer, Arizona

      Campana, Michael E.; Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1976-05-01)
      In the absence of pure piston flow, the carbon-14 ages of ground-water can be related to groundwater residence times only in the context of a flow model. To do this, a three-dimensional digital computer model of a portion of the Tucson Basin Aquifer was constructed using the theory of finite-state mixing cell models. The model was calibrated against the spatial distribution of adjusted carbon-14 ground-water ages, and once a reasonable fit was obtained, the ground-water residence times were calculated. The model also provides a first approximation to three-dimensional flow in the aquifer as well as an estimate of the long-term average annual recharge to the aquifer.
    • Feasibility of Using Solar Energy for Irrigation Pumping

      Larson, Dennis; Fanmeier, D. D.; Matlock, W. G.; Day, John; Sands, C. D., II; Soils, Water and Engineering Department, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona; Agricultural Economics Department, University of Arizona, Tucson (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1976-05-01)
      Solar powered pumping is technically feasible. However, solar energy intensity is variable and its collection requires high capital investment. Present production methods might require modification for most economic use of solar energy. Various irrigation and pumping practices are examined to determine those most compatible with use of solar power. The tentative conclusion of the study is that solar energy usage is most economical for driving pumps only during sunlight hours and where pumping requirements are uniform throughout the year. Solar energy is a more costly source of pumping power than electricity or natural gas.
    • NAIWMC - Potential in the Southwest

      Keyes, Conrad G., Jr.; North American Interstate Weather Modification Council, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1976-05-01)
      The North American Interstate Weather Modification Council was formed to coordinate intrastate, interstate and possible international weather modification activities. The main purpose of this organization is to achieve and maintain state and local control of such activities while endeavoring to attain a high degree of legislative uniformity and an effective information exchange mechanism. The need, goals and objectives of the newly created Council are summarized. A summary of the Council's progress at performing the purposes of the Council are presented in this paper. The potential use of this Council in the Southwest is described in relation to existing programs in weather modification in the area.
    • Water for Food, Energy and Municipal Use in the Colorado Basin: A Consumer-Environmental Perspective

      Tellman, Barbara; Citizens to Revise Arizona Water Law (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1976-05-01)
    • The Prejudices, Polemics, and Politics of Water Management Versus the Reasonable Man Test

      Stribling, Barbara A. (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1976-05-01)
      American legislative bodies and juries of laymen are founded on the concept that what a reasonable man would do is what will be done. In actuality the synergistic effects of prejudice, politics, and polarized language rarely allow this to occur. The result has been conflict of interest statutorily mandated on natural resource governing boards and a lack of expertise in the courtroom. Further contempt has developed between citizen and expert and between legislator and bureaucrat. I propose to explore the operative mechanism in the situation and discuss possible future roles for both citizen and expert as well as tools which could be utilized by them.
    • Planning Models of an Irrigated Farm with Limited Water

      Blank, Herbert G.; Agency for International Development, Sana, Yemen (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1976-05-01)
    • Use of Satellite Data to Develop Snowmelt-Runoff Forecasts in Arizona

      Ffolliott, Peter F.; Rasmussen, William O.; School of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1976-05-01)
    • Optimal Livestock Production of Rehabilitated Mine Lands

      Brinck, Fritz H.; Fogel, Martin M.; Duckstein, Lucien; Department of Systems and Industrial Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721; School of Renewable Natural Resources and Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721; Departments of Systems and Industrial Engineering and Hydrology & Water Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1976-05-01)
      Strip mining leaves behind spoils to be recontoured to maximize the benefit of livestock production on the rehabilitated land. This paper designs watersheds to achieve a balance between two main range livestock requirements, forage and stock water by way of grading and furrowing man-made slopes. The three design attributes, surface configuration, surface treatment, and range management policy are optimized with respect to maximal profit accounting for natural uncertainties in 3 variables, viz., time interval between storm arrivals, precipitation per storm event, and duration of the storm event. Runoff and sedimentation are modeled on an event basis as functions of said random variables. The stock water reservoir at the bottom of the watershed is dredged periodically. The stochastic model is applied to the Black Mesa in Northern Arizona which is in the process of being strip-mined for coal.
    • Water-Related Information Sources: Highlights

      White, Linda M.; Center for Quantitative Studies, The University of Arizona, Tucson (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1976-05-01)
    • Water Quality Study of Lake Havasu, Arizona Near the CAP Intake Area

      Ince, Simon; Kreamer, David L.; Young, Don W.; Constant, Charles L.; Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1976-05-01)
      Throughout 1974 and 1975 the Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona, conducted a water quality study on Lake Havasu, Arizona, near the Central Arizona Project intake. This investigation was funded jointly by the Arizona Water Commission and the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. The University study evaluated the hydrography and hydrology, sediments, turbidity, temperature, chemistry, dissolved oxygen (and biochemical oxygen demand), benthic invertebrates, phytoplankton, zooplankton, biomass analysis, and electrical conductivity to establish baseline data for the CAP intake area. The results showed weak stratification and generally good aeration in the lake and high turbidity in the Bill Williams River. Biological quality was good with low amounts of benthics and numerous zooplankton and phytoplankton species. The extensive data from chemical analysis generally conformed to public health standards.
    • Politics of Water in Arizona

      Farr, Morris (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1976-05-01)
    • Future Effects of the CAP on Lake Havasu's Thermal Regime

      Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1976-05-01)
      A temperature-stratification model developed by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, Hydrologic Engineering Center, was used to predict the changes in the temperature profile of Lake Havasu on the Colorado River near Parker, Arizona, that may occur with the withdrawal of Central Arizona Project (CAP) water in the 1980's. This quantified change in temperature-dependent density stratification was calculated using maximum withdrawal conditions to accentuate and expose any major changes which could be potential problems. Inputs for this program include monthly evaporation and precipitation, monthly average air temperature, solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere, water inflow amount and temperature, water outflow amount and location, water temperature profiles, and physical reservoir data. In the calibration of the model, the five coefficients were found to differ slightly from regional coefficients established by the Hydrologic Engineering Center, Davis, California, and coefficients established in a previous study. End of month temperature profiles were then generated for average meteorological conditions, both with and without maximum CAP flow. The computed results indicate that the stratification changes will be of low magnitude.
    • Water in Arizona: A Reporter's History

      Turner, Tom (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1976-05-01)
      Once Arizona sent National Guard troops to the Colorado River in an effort to counter California's claim on that River's water. Then, in following years, the farming interests dominated Arizona economy and politics. The farming interests promoted in their behalf the powerful Salt River Project, and the concept of groundwater as a property right. Over the years, agricultural power has held fast with only slight modifications in the basic groundwater law; this has inhibited the scientific assessment of Arizona's groundwater resources. Projections of the dire effects of groundwater policies first came from a few mavericks in the academic community. As facts have accumulated, these projections appear to be essentially correct. It is now evident that city, farm and industry can join to manage and conserve what is left of the dwindling water resource, or they can dry-up separately.
    • Evaluating Water Quality Sampling Schedules Using Fecal Coliform Concentrations in Sabino Creek

      Motschall, Robert M.; Brickler, Stanley K.; Phillips, Robert A.; School of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona; Civil Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1976-05-01)
      Sabino Canyon Recreation Area, adjacent to Tucson, and a major water-based recreation complex within the Santa Catalina Mountains, Coronado National Forest, receives intensive recreational use. This natural water resource area with primary water contact activities was monitored for fecal coliform in accordance with U.S. Forest Service Regulation (FSM 2542.2). As part of a larger study, this report discusses the relationships between time, day, and location of sampling with fecal coliform bacterial concentrations in Sabino Creek. Analysis of Variance shows that fecal coliform concentrations were higher: 1) on Sunday than Wednesday, 2) at 4:00PM than 8:00AM or 12:00 Noon, and 3) in the lower section of the four miles of the study area. This research provides the U.S. Forest Service with baseline water quality data and a benchmark from which to continue an efficient water quality monitoring program.
    • The Effect of an Intensive Summer Thunderstorm on a Semiarid Urbanized Watershed

      Boyer, D. G.; DeCook, K. J.; Water Resources Research Center, University of Arizona, Tucson (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1976-05-01)
      The University of Arizona Atterbury Experimental Watershed, located southeast of Tucson, Arizona has been instrumented for precipitation and runoff measurements since 1956. Early on the afternoon of July 16, 1975 an intense convective thunderstorm produced more than three inches of rainfall in less than 50 minutes as recorded in several rain gages located in the middle of one 8.1 square-mile desert subwatershed. Storm runoff from this rural subwatershed and an adjacent recently urbanized subwatershed filled the newly finished Lakeside Reservoir and topped the concrete flood spillway with a peak of greater than 3000 cfs, the greatest flow since monitoring began. An analysis of storm characteristics, along with previously available data from local urbanized watersheds, allows speculation on the effect of such an intensive storm in a highly urbanized area.
    • Water Quality of Streamflow from Forested Watersheds on Sedimentary Soils

      Gregory, Paul W.; Ffolliott, Peter F.; School of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1976-05-01)
      To provide quantitative baseline information on water quality of streamflow from ponderosa pine watersheds on sedimentary soils, water samples were collected at the mouths of four watersheds at time of surface runoff and during extreme or unusual hydrological events. In each sample, calcium (Ca++), magnesium (Mg++) and sodium (Na+) were determined by using atomic absorption spectrophotometry; carbonate (CO=3) and bicarbonate (HCO-3) were measured by titrating with standard acid; fluoride (F-), sulfate (SO=4), 3 nitrate (NO-3), and chloride (Cl-) were determined by colorimetric methods using an Autoanalyzer; hydrogen ion concentration (pH) was measured by using a glass electrode; and suspended sediment concentrations were determined by filtration. The data obtained were compared with EPA water quality standards for aquatic life, irrigation, and public water supply. Although the EPA levels of acceptability have not been established for many of the chemical and physical water constituents, the parameters determined in this study, in general, fall within the EPA prescribed limits.
    • Windbreaks May Increase Water Yield from the Grassland Islands in Arizona's Mixed Conifer Forests

      Thompson, J. R.; Knipe, O. D.; Johnson, Phil M.; United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest; Range Experiment Station, Forest Hydrology Laboratory, Arizona State University, Tempe (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1976-05-01)
      The general hydrologic characteristics, selected climatic factors, and soil properties of the high-elevation grasslands are compared to the surrounding forest. Evidence shows that water yield could be increased by 1-1/2 to 2 inches if snow could be held where it falls. It may be possible to establish tree windbreaks in the grassland by altering the microclimate during establishment, and introducing mycorrhiza with the planted seedlings. This conclusion is supported by good survival in a 2-year planting trial.
    • Addition of a Carbon Pulse to Stimulate Denitrification in Soil Columns Flooded with Sewage Water

      Lance, J. C.; Gilbert, R. G.; U. S. Water Conservation Laboratory, Phoenix, Arizona 85040 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1976-05-01)
    • The Role of the States in Control of Weather Modification

      Davis, Ray Jay; College of Law, the University of Arizona, Tucson (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1976-05-01)
      It now appears that, at least for the near future, the only federal controls of weather modification will be the record keeping and reporting requirements of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. About two-thirds of the states have enacted cloud seeding laws to fill the regulatory void. These statutes, however, are quite varied and many of them are inadequate. Accordingly, there is a need for "suggested" or "model" state weather control legislation. In a project funded by the Office of Water Research and Technology and administered through the Arizona Water Resources Research Center, such a proposed law has been prepared. It delegates means of control over seeding to an administrative agency, authorizes governmental funding of operations, establishes procedures and criteria for professional licensing of cloud seeders, creates a system for regulation of projects through operational permits, requires record keeping and reporting, and sets standards for resolution of water rights and legal liability issues.