• Water-Related Information Sources: Highlights

      White, Linda M.; Center for Quantitative Studies, The University of Arizona, Tucson (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1976-05-01)
    • Arizona Water: Uses and Sources Past, Present, and Future

      Davidson, Lucy (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1976-05-01)
    • Mathematical Modelling of a Forward Osmosis Extractor

      Moody, C. D.; Kessler, J. O.; School of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson; Department of Physics, University of Arizona, Tucson (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1976-05-01)
      Osmosis occurs when two solutions of differing osmolar concentrations are separated by a membrane permeable to the solvent but not (or nearly not) to the solutes. This paper derives the relationship between the kinetics and design parameters of systems designed for the purpose of applying this process to problems such as agricultural water reclamation, dehydration of solutions and the production of potable nutrient solutions from sea water. Three mathematical models that include increasingly complex fundamental process assumptions are presented. In all cases the fundamental mechanical device is assumed to be a continuous flow extractor that incorporates a semipermeable membrane.
    • Water Quality of Streamflow from Forested Watersheds on Sedimentary Soils

      Gregory, Paul W.; Ffolliott, Peter F.; School of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1976-05-01)
      To provide quantitative baseline information on water quality of streamflow from ponderosa pine watersheds on sedimentary soils, water samples were collected at the mouths of four watersheds at time of surface runoff and during extreme or unusual hydrological events. In each sample, calcium (Ca++), magnesium (Mg++) and sodium (Na+) were determined by using atomic absorption spectrophotometry; carbonate (CO=3) and bicarbonate (HCO-3) were measured by titrating with standard acid; fluoride (F-), sulfate (SO=4), 3 nitrate (NO-3), and chloride (Cl-) were determined by colorimetric methods using an Autoanalyzer; hydrogen ion concentration (pH) was measured by using a glass electrode; and suspended sediment concentrations were determined by filtration. The data obtained were compared with EPA water quality standards for aquatic life, irrigation, and public water supply. Although the EPA levels of acceptability have not been established for many of the chemical and physical water constituents, the parameters determined in this study, in general, fall within the EPA prescribed limits.
    • A Method for Maximizing the Present Value of a Groundwater Resource

      Weisz, Reuben N.; Lowle, Charles L., Jr.; Department of Agricultural Economics, The University of Arizona, Tucson; Soils, Water and Engineering Department, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1976-05-01)
      In the past, researchers have applied a variety of analytical techniques for maximizing the present value of net benefits derived from a stock resource-simulation, calculus of variations, stochastic dynamic programming, and optimal control theory. This paper presents a more operational approach - linear programming. Applying linear programming to this type of problem requires a set of internal accounting constraints that prevent the additivity assumption of linear programming from being violated. A simplified, broadly drawn example from Southwest agriculture is used for demonstrating the model's structure and output.
    • The Prejudices, Polemics, and Politics of Water Management Versus the Reasonable Man Test

      Stribling, Barbara A. (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1976-05-01)
      American legislative bodies and juries of laymen are founded on the concept that what a reasonable man would do is what will be done. In actuality the synergistic effects of prejudice, politics, and polarized language rarely allow this to occur. The result has been conflict of interest statutorily mandated on natural resource governing boards and a lack of expertise in the courtroom. Further contempt has developed between citizen and expert and between legislator and bureaucrat. I propose to explore the operative mechanism in the situation and discuss possible future roles for both citizen and expert as well as tools which could be utilized by them.
    • Evaluating Water Quality Sampling Schedules Using Fecal Coliform Concentrations in Sabino Creek

      Motschall, Robert M.; Brickler, Stanley K.; Phillips, Robert A.; School of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona; Civil Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1976-05-01)
      Sabino Canyon Recreation Area, adjacent to Tucson, and a major water-based recreation complex within the Santa Catalina Mountains, Coronado National Forest, receives intensive recreational use. This natural water resource area with primary water contact activities was monitored for fecal coliform in accordance with U.S. Forest Service Regulation (FSM 2542.2). As part of a larger study, this report discusses the relationships between time, day, and location of sampling with fecal coliform bacterial concentrations in Sabino Creek. Analysis of Variance shows that fecal coliform concentrations were higher: 1) on Sunday than Wednesday, 2) at 4:00PM than 8:00AM or 12:00 Noon, and 3) in the lower section of the four miles of the study area. This research provides the U.S. Forest Service with baseline water quality data and a benchmark from which to continue an efficient water quality monitoring program.
    • Windbreaks May Increase Water Yield from the Grassland Islands in Arizona's Mixed Conifer Forests

      Thompson, J. R.; Knipe, O. D.; Johnson, Phil M.; United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest; Range Experiment Station, Forest Hydrology Laboratory, Arizona State University, Tempe (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1976-05-01)
      The general hydrologic characteristics, selected climatic factors, and soil properties of the high-elevation grasslands are compared to the surrounding forest. Evidence shows that water yield could be increased by 1-1/2 to 2 inches if snow could be held where it falls. It may be possible to establish tree windbreaks in the grassland by altering the microclimate during establishment, and introducing mycorrhiza with the planted seedlings. This conclusion is supported by good survival in a 2-year planting trial.
    • The Role of the States in Control of Weather Modification

      Davis, Ray Jay; College of Law, the University of Arizona, Tucson (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1976-05-01)
      It now appears that, at least for the near future, the only federal controls of weather modification will be the record keeping and reporting requirements of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. About two-thirds of the states have enacted cloud seeding laws to fill the regulatory void. These statutes, however, are quite varied and many of them are inadequate. Accordingly, there is a need for "suggested" or "model" state weather control legislation. In a project funded by the Office of Water Research and Technology and administered through the Arizona Water Resources Research Center, such a proposed law has been prepared. It delegates means of control over seeding to an administrative agency, authorizes governmental funding of operations, establishes procedures and criteria for professional licensing of cloud seeders, creates a system for regulation of projects through operational permits, requires record keeping and reporting, and sets standards for resolution of water rights and legal liability issues.
    • Optimal Livestock Production of Rehabilitated Mine Lands

      Brinck, Fritz H.; Fogel, Martin M.; Duckstein, Lucien; Department of Systems and Industrial Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721; School of Renewable Natural Resources and Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721; Departments of Systems and Industrial Engineering and Hydrology & Water Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1976-05-01)
      Strip mining leaves behind spoils to be recontoured to maximize the benefit of livestock production on the rehabilitated land. This paper designs watersheds to achieve a balance between two main range livestock requirements, forage and stock water by way of grading and furrowing man-made slopes. The three design attributes, surface configuration, surface treatment, and range management policy are optimized with respect to maximal profit accounting for natural uncertainties in 3 variables, viz., time interval between storm arrivals, precipitation per storm event, and duration of the storm event. Runoff and sedimentation are modeled on an event basis as functions of said random variables. The stock water reservoir at the bottom of the watershed is dredged periodically. The stochastic model is applied to the Black Mesa in Northern Arizona which is in the process of being strip-mined for coal.
    • Use of Satellite Data to Develop Snowmelt-Runoff Forecasts in Arizona

      Ffolliott, Peter F.; Rasmussen, William O.; School of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1976-05-01)
    • Construction, Calibration and Operation of a Monolith Weighing Lysimeter

      Sammis, Theodore W.; Young, Don W.; Constant, Charles L.; Department of Hydrology & Water Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1976-05-01)
      Construction of a hydraulic monolith weighing lysimeter was undertaken, however, due to inherent design and/or construction errors this proved to be an inadequate device for the accurate determination of evapotranspiration from Larrea divaricatta (creosote bush). Prior inability to stabilize the lysimeter with respect to barometric and temperature fluctuations, and eventual failure within the hydraulic transducer package led to the eventual abandonment of the hydraulic load cell design, and adoption of an electronic strain gage transducer package. This paper deals with the detailed design and construction phases of the original lysimeter, the inherent difficulties encountered, and with the modification and conversion of the lysimeter to the electronic transducer assembly. Accompanying test data with respect to sensitivity, response time and differential loading characteristics support the premise that the electronic load cell design has inherent maintenance and operational advantages over the hydraulic transducer lysimeter.
    • Future Effects of the CAP on Lake Havasu's Thermal Regime

      Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1976-05-01)
      A temperature-stratification model developed by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, Hydrologic Engineering Center, was used to predict the changes in the temperature profile of Lake Havasu on the Colorado River near Parker, Arizona, that may occur with the withdrawal of Central Arizona Project (CAP) water in the 1980's. This quantified change in temperature-dependent density stratification was calculated using maximum withdrawal conditions to accentuate and expose any major changes which could be potential problems. Inputs for this program include monthly evaporation and precipitation, monthly average air temperature, solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere, water inflow amount and temperature, water outflow amount and location, water temperature profiles, and physical reservoir data. In the calibration of the model, the five coefficients were found to differ slightly from regional coefficients established by the Hydrologic Engineering Center, Davis, California, and coefficients established in a previous study. End of month temperature profiles were then generated for average meteorological conditions, both with and without maximum CAP flow. The computed results indicate that the stratification changes will be of low magnitude.
    • Academic Training for Groundwater Quality Specialists

      Schmidt, Kenneth D. (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1976-05-01)
    • A Multiobjective Approach to Managing a Southern Arizona Watershed

      Golcoechea, Ambrose; Duckstein, Lucien; Fogel, Martin M.; Department of System and Industrial Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721; Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson 85721 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1976-05-01)
      The case study of an Upper San Pedro River watershed is developed to show how a multiple objective approach to decision-making may be used in watershed management. The effects of various land treatments and management practices on water runoff, sediment, recreation,, wildlife levels, and commercial potential of a study area are investigated while observing constraints' on available land and capital. The example involves the optimization of five objective functions subject to eighteen constraints. In an iterative manner, the decision-maker proceeds from one noninferior solution to another, comparing sets of land management activities for reaching specified goals, and evaluating trade-offs between individual objective functions. This technique, which involves the formulation of a surrogate objective function and the use of the cutting plane method to solve the general nonlinear problem, hopefully provides a compromise between oversimplified and computationally intractable approaches to multiobjective watershed management.
    • Study of the Adequacy of the Water Supply for the Carefree-Cave Creek Area

      Nemecek, Edward A.; Briggs, Philip C.; Arizona Water Commission (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1976-05-01)
    • Laboratory Weathering of Water-Repellent Wax-Treated Soil

      Fink, Dwayne H.; U. S. Water Conservation Laboratory, Phoenix, Arizona 85040 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1976-05-01)
    • Water in Arizona: A Reporter's History

      Turner, Tom (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1976-05-01)
      Once Arizona sent National Guard troops to the Colorado River in an effort to counter California's claim on that River's water. Then, in following years, the farming interests dominated Arizona economy and politics. The farming interests promoted in their behalf the powerful Salt River Project, and the concept of groundwater as a property right. Over the years, agricultural power has held fast with only slight modifications in the basic groundwater law; this has inhibited the scientific assessment of Arizona's groundwater resources. Projections of the dire effects of groundwater policies first came from a few mavericks in the academic community. As facts have accumulated, these projections appear to be essentially correct. It is now evident that city, farm and industry can join to manage and conserve what is left of the dwindling water resource, or they can dry-up separately.
    • Reservoir Design under Random Sediment Yield

      Duckstein, L.; Szidarovsky, F.; Yakowitz, S.; Departments of Systems and Industrial Engineering and Hydrology & Water Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721; Department of Numerical Methods, Eötvös University, Muzeum körut, Budapest VIII, Hungary; Department of Systems and Industrial Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1976-05-01)
    • Stock-Water Harvesting with Wax on the Arizona Strip

      Cooley, Keith R.; Brazell, Loren N.; Frasier, Gary W.; Fink, Dwayne H.; U. S. Water Conservation Laboratory, Phoenix, Arizona 85040; Bureau of Land Management, St. George, Utah (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1976-05-01)