• Water Quality of Streamflow from Forested Watersheds on Sedimentary Soils

      Gregory, Paul W.; Ffolliott, Peter F.; School of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1976-05-01)
      To provide quantitative baseline information on water quality of streamflow from ponderosa pine watersheds on sedimentary soils, water samples were collected at the mouths of four watersheds at time of surface runoff and during extreme or unusual hydrological events. In each sample, calcium (Ca++), magnesium (Mg++) and sodium (Na+) were determined by using atomic absorption spectrophotometry; carbonate (CO=3) and bicarbonate (HCO-3) were measured by titrating with standard acid; fluoride (F-), sulfate (SO=4), 3 nitrate (NO-3), and chloride (Cl-) were determined by colorimetric methods using an Autoanalyzer; hydrogen ion concentration (pH) was measured by using a glass electrode; and suspended sediment concentrations were determined by filtration. The data obtained were compared with EPA water quality standards for aquatic life, irrigation, and public water supply. Although the EPA levels of acceptability have not been established for many of the chemical and physical water constituents, the parameters determined in this study, in general, fall within the EPA prescribed limits.
    • Evaluating Water Quality Sampling Schedules Using Fecal Coliform Concentrations in Sabino Creek

      Motschall, Robert M.; Brickler, Stanley K.; Phillips, Robert A.; School of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona; Civil Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1976-05-01)
      Sabino Canyon Recreation Area, adjacent to Tucson, and a major water-based recreation complex within the Santa Catalina Mountains, Coronado National Forest, receives intensive recreational use. This natural water resource area with primary water contact activities was monitored for fecal coliform in accordance with U.S. Forest Service Regulation (FSM 2542.2). As part of a larger study, this report discusses the relationships between time, day, and location of sampling with fecal coliform bacterial concentrations in Sabino Creek. Analysis of Variance shows that fecal coliform concentrations were higher: 1) on Sunday than Wednesday, 2) at 4:00PM than 8:00AM or 12:00 Noon, and 3) in the lower section of the four miles of the study area. This research provides the U.S. Forest Service with baseline water quality data and a benchmark from which to continue an efficient water quality monitoring program.
    • Simulation of Partial Area Response from a Small Semiarid Watershed

      Lane, Leonard J.; Wallace, Delmer E.; Southwest Watershed Research Center, Tucson, Arizona 85705 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1976-05-01)
    • Mathematical Modelling of a Forward Osmosis Extractor

      Moody, C. D.; Kessler, J. O.; School of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson; Department of Physics, University of Arizona, Tucson (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1976-05-01)
      Osmosis occurs when two solutions of differing osmolar concentrations are separated by a membrane permeable to the solvent but not (or nearly not) to the solutes. This paper derives the relationship between the kinetics and design parameters of systems designed for the purpose of applying this process to problems such as agricultural water reclamation, dehydration of solutions and the production of potable nutrient solutions from sea water. Three mathematical models that include increasingly complex fundamental process assumptions are presented. In all cases the fundamental mechanical device is assumed to be a continuous flow extractor that incorporates a semipermeable membrane.
    • Past Mining Activities and Water Quality in the Lynx Creek Watershed

      Felix, E. N.; Verma, T. R.; McCrary, E. E.; Thames, J. L.; Prescott National Forest, U.S.D.A., Forest Service; School of Renewable Resources, University of Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1976-05-01)
      Lynx Lake Watershed consists of approximately 13,600 acres of the Agua Fria drainage. About 13 percent of the area is patented mining claims (mainly copper} with numerous mining shafts, waste dumps, and mill tailings. Lynx Creek itself was once mined for gold and the creek bed still shows the scars of the dredging operations. Drainage from the numerous old mining sites show a certain extent of toxic mineral and sediment pollution of the water resources in the area. Lynx Creek carries runoff which is slightly acidic in nature and has a high concentration of copper, manganese, iron, zinc, and sulfates. The Sheldon Mine complex is considered one of the major sources of pollution to the lake. Aquatic life and recreation potential of the watershed is greatly reduced by the water pollution problem. The pollutants from the abandoned mine sites enter into Lynx Lake, a trout fisheries lake, which was created by damming the creek in 1962 by the Arizona Game and Fish Department. The Sheldon Tailings pond was rehabilitated during the summer of 1975 as part of a reclamation study and demonstration project that is currently in progress and being sponsored by SEAM (Surface Environment and Mining}. The study is being conducted cooperatively by the School of Renewable Resources, University of Arizona, and the Prescott National Forest. An excellent vegetative cover is established on the site and studies are being conducted to measure the beneficial effects of the reclamation on water quality.
    • A Method for Maximizing the Present Value of a Groundwater Resource

      Weisz, Reuben N.; Lowle, Charles L., Jr.; Department of Agricultural Economics, The University of Arizona, Tucson; Soils, Water and Engineering Department, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1976-05-01)
      In the past, researchers have applied a variety of analytical techniques for maximizing the present value of net benefits derived from a stock resource-simulation, calculus of variations, stochastic dynamic programming, and optimal control theory. This paper presents a more operational approach - linear programming. Applying linear programming to this type of problem requires a set of internal accounting constraints that prevent the additivity assumption of linear programming from being violated. A simplified, broadly drawn example from Southwest agriculture is used for demonstrating the model's structure and output.
    • Windbreaks May Increase Water Yield from the Grassland Islands in Arizona's Mixed Conifer Forests

      Thompson, J. R.; Knipe, O. D.; Johnson, Phil M.; United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest; Range Experiment Station, Forest Hydrology Laboratory, Arizona State University, Tempe (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1976-05-01)
      The general hydrologic characteristics, selected climatic factors, and soil properties of the high-elevation grasslands are compared to the surrounding forest. Evidence shows that water yield could be increased by 1-1/2 to 2 inches if snow could be held where it falls. It may be possible to establish tree windbreaks in the grassland by altering the microclimate during establishment, and introducing mycorrhiza with the planted seedlings. This conclusion is supported by good survival in a 2-year planting trial.
    • NAIWMC - Potential in the Southwest

      Keyes, Conrad G., Jr.; North American Interstate Weather Modification Council, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1976-05-01)
      The North American Interstate Weather Modification Council was formed to coordinate intrastate, interstate and possible international weather modification activities. The main purpose of this organization is to achieve and maintain state and local control of such activities while endeavoring to attain a high degree of legislative uniformity and an effective information exchange mechanism. The need, goals and objectives of the newly created Council are summarized. A summary of the Council's progress at performing the purposes of the Council are presented in this paper. The potential use of this Council in the Southwest is described in relation to existing programs in weather modification in the area.
    • Water for Food, Energy and Municipal Use in the Colorado Basin: A Consumer-Environmental Perspective

      Tellman, Barbara; Citizens to Revise Arizona Water Law (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1976-05-01)
    • On the Modeling and Computational Aspects of Dynamic Programming with Applications in Reservoir Control

      Sniedovich, Moshe; Yakowitz, Sidney J.; Department of Systems and Industrial Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1976-05-01)
      A discrete stochastic multistage decision model is developed, in the framework of which the dynamic programming algorithm is defined. It is demonstrated that the algorithm may be used as a solution procedure for non-routine reservoir control problems. The study demonstrates that analytical considerations may be used to significantly reduce the amount of computation needed for the implementation of the algorithm. Two reservoir control problems are studied: The "reliability problem" in which one seeks a minimum-cost operation rule under a constraint which specifies the maximum probability of shortage allowed during the life-time of the project, and the "range problem" in which the objective is the minimization of the expected value of the range of fluctuation around a critical storage level.
    • Chlorofluorocarbons as Hydrologic Tracers, A New Technology

      Randall, J. H.; Schultz, T. R.; Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1976-05-01)
      The nationwide research undertaken to study environmentally dispersed chlorofluorocarbons introduced into the atmosphere from aerosol cans and refrigeration systems has indicated that these compounds are potentially ideal hydrologic tracers, especially Freon-11 (Cl₃CF). The major advantages of Cl₃CF as a tracer are its non-polluting conservative nature, extremely low toxicity and sorptivity on clays, quantifiable build-up in the atmosphere, and a detection limit of about 10⁻¹⁴ grams. Quick and inexpensive detection of Cl₃CF can be done using a field-operable gas chromatograph with a pulsed electron-capture detector system. The presence of Cl₃CF in ground water, indicating an age of less than 30 years, will permit delineation of recent recharge areas. The absolute age of the recharging water is proportional to the atmospheric concentration of Cl₃CF at the time of recharge. The simple quantifiable increase of Cl₃CF in the atmosphere should therefore yield more accurate ages than those determined by tritium analysis.
    • Application of a Double Triangle Unit Hydrograph to a Small Semiarid Watershed

      Diskin, M. H.; Lane, L. J.; Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson; United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Western Region, Southwest Watershed Research Center, Tucson, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1976-05-01)
      Hydrographs of runoff from small watersheds in semiarid regions often have a sharp peak with a relatively short time of rise followed by a slower recession and a tail of low flow. This characteristic shape suggests the possible use of a double triangle unit hydrograph recently introduced to hydrology. The shape of this unit hydrograph is specified by four parameters, which may be estimated by an optimization procedure based on using the sum of absolute deviations or some other suitable criterion as an objective function. Rainfall and runoff data for a number of storm events on a small watershed in the Santa Rita Experimental Range in southeastern Arizona have been analyzed to test the above idea. Double triangle unit hydrographs were fitted to individual storm events. The differences in the shapes of individual unit hydrographs were found to be small so that they could be approximated by a single double triangle unit hydrograph.
    • Equilibrium Condition and Sediment Transport in an Ephemeral Mountain Stream

      Heede, Burchard H.; Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Tempe, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1976-05-01)
      Flow frequency curves supported the hypothesis that channel-forming flows are exceptional events in ephemeral mountain streams. This was substantiated by the lack of a relationship between sediment production and sediment yield. Numerous bed nickpoints indicated channel instability, despite gravel bars and log steps that are part of the slope adjustment processes. Due to differences in structural density between bars and steps, size distribution of the sediment deposits above them differs. Although only qualitative guidelines are presented, the watershed or wildlife manager should be in a position to utilize the formation of gravel bars and log steps for his management goals.
    • Lysimeter Snowmelt in Arizona Ponderosa Pine Forests

      Jones, Mikeal E.; Ffolliott, Peter F.; Thorud, David B.; School of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1976-05-01)
    • Preliminary Results from a Study of Coal Mining Effects on Water Quality of the Tongue River, Wyoming

      Olsen, Richard D.; Dettmann, Edward H.; U. S. Energy Research and Development Administration; Division of Environmental Impact Studies, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1976-05-01)
      A preliminary assessment survey, preparatory to a comprehensive ERDA sponsored watershed study, was conducted in the vicinity of Sheridan, Wyoming on the Tongue River and its major tributaries during the summer of 1975 to determine the extent and magnitude of aquatic environmental impacts induced by strip mining of coal at one major mine in the western Powder River Basin of Wyoming. Results of detailed physical and chemical analysis of mine discharge and ambient water quality of receiving streams were not conclusive, but suggest that water quality impacts of present mining activities in the area examinee' are small when compared to other apparent land use impacts observed upstream of the mine.
    • Construction, Calibration and Operation of a Monolith Weighing Lysimeter

      Sammis, Theodore W.; Young, Don W.; Constant, Charles L.; Department of Hydrology & Water Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1976-05-01)
      Construction of a hydraulic monolith weighing lysimeter was undertaken, however, due to inherent design and/or construction errors this proved to be an inadequate device for the accurate determination of evapotranspiration from Larrea divaricatta (creosote bush). Prior inability to stabilize the lysimeter with respect to barometric and temperature fluctuations, and eventual failure within the hydraulic transducer package led to the eventual abandonment of the hydraulic load cell design, and adoption of an electronic strain gage transducer package. This paper deals with the detailed design and construction phases of the original lysimeter, the inherent difficulties encountered, and with the modification and conversion of the lysimeter to the electronic transducer assembly. Accompanying test data with respect to sensitivity, response time and differential loading characteristics support the premise that the electronic load cell design has inherent maintenance and operational advantages over the hydraulic transducer lysimeter.
    • The Role of the States in Control of Weather Modification

      Davis, Ray Jay; College of Law, the University of Arizona, Tucson (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1976-05-01)
      It now appears that, at least for the near future, the only federal controls of weather modification will be the record keeping and reporting requirements of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. About two-thirds of the states have enacted cloud seeding laws to fill the regulatory void. These statutes, however, are quite varied and many of them are inadequate. Accordingly, there is a need for "suggested" or "model" state weather control legislation. In a project funded by the Office of Water Research and Technology and administered through the Arizona Water Resources Research Center, such a proposed law has been prepared. It delegates means of control over seeding to an administrative agency, authorizes governmental funding of operations, establishes procedures and criteria for professional licensing of cloud seeders, creates a system for regulation of projects through operational permits, requires record keeping and reporting, and sets standards for resolution of water rights and legal liability issues.
    • Use of Satellite Data to Develop Snowmelt-Runoff Forecasts in Arizona

      Ffolliott, Peter F.; Rasmussen, William O.; School of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1976-05-01)
    • Study of the Adequacy of the Water Supply for the Carefree-Cave Creek Area

      Nemecek, Edward A.; Briggs, Philip C.; Arizona Water Commission (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1976-05-01)
    • A Multiobjective Approach to Managing a Southern Arizona Watershed

      Golcoechea, Ambrose; Duckstein, Lucien; Fogel, Martin M.; Department of System and Industrial Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721; Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson 85721 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1976-05-01)
      The case study of an Upper San Pedro River watershed is developed to show how a multiple objective approach to decision-making may be used in watershed management. The effects of various land treatments and management practices on water runoff, sediment, recreation,, wildlife levels, and commercial potential of a study area are investigated while observing constraints' on available land and capital. The example involves the optimization of five objective functions subject to eighteen constraints. In an iterative manner, the decision-maker proceeds from one noninferior solution to another, comparing sets of land management activities for reaching specified goals, and evaluating trade-offs between individual objective functions. This technique, which involves the formulation of a surrogate objective function and the use of the cutting plane method to solve the general nonlinear problem, hopefully provides a compromise between oversimplified and computationally intractable approaches to multiobjective watershed management.