• An Economic Analysis of the Central Arizona Project

      Barr, James L.; Pingry, David E.; Department of Economics, University of Arizona; Division of Economic and Business Research, University of Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1977-04-16)
      An economic evaluation of the Central Arizona Project was conducted with a goal of developing a simulation model of CAP costs, water operations and capital repayment alternatives. This model was compared to the actual cost experience of the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California for a realistic assessment. In addition, an effort was made to consider some of the indirect impacts of the CAP, and the overall economic outlook was summarized. In devising the simulation model CAP capital costs, CAP power supply and CAP water supply factors were considered along with user charges, management alternatives, and operations, maintenance and repair costs.
    • Effects of Brush to Grass Conversion on the Hydrology and Erosion of a Semiarid Southwestern Rangeland Watershed

      Simanton, J. R.; Osborn, H. B.; Renard, K. G.; United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Western Region, Southwest Watershed Research Center, Tucson, Arizona 85705 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1977-04-16)
      Increased nutritional and economic demands for agricultural products have dictated the need for greater and more efficient use of western grass forage. Vegetation manipulation is the quickest and most economical means of increasing forage. However , the hydrologic effects must be taken into consideration before embarking on a large scale vegetation manipulated program. This study discusses the hydrologic and erosion changes measured from a 110-acre semiarid watershed which was converted from brush to grass by root plowing and seeding. Significant changes were observed in rainfall-runoff relationships as average summer runoff was considerably in excess of predictions. Sediment yield also varied, and both of these results were tied to the change in vegetative cover and post conversion rainfall conditions.
    • A Water Supply Data Base

      Nunamaker, J. F.; Pingry, David E.; Riley, Rex; Departments of Management Information Systems and Economics, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona; Electric Power Research Institute, Inc., Palo Alto, California (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1977-04-16)
      This paper describes a water supply data base being developed for the Colorado River Basin States by the University of Arizona under contract with the Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. This data base is a guide to existing natural, technical, economic, and legal water data and water data agencies in the states of Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah and Wyoming.
    • Diurnal Trends in Water Status, Transpiration, and Photosynthesis of Saltcedar

      Williams, Mary Ellen; Anderson, Jay E.; Department of Biology, Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1977-04-16)
      Relative water content (RWC), water potential (P), and gas exchange were measured on saltcedar at the Bernardo, New Mexico, lysimeter site. RWC and s were closely correlated; but, water potential measurements, taken with a pressure bomb, were more convenient and reliable. RWC and r decreased sharply from sunup until about 0900, when minimum values of about -26 bars T or 80% RWC were reached. Water status then remained constant or improved slightly through late afternoon. Transpiration rates typically remained high until about noon and then began a steady, gradual decrease that continued throughout the afternoon. The data suggest that water stress may be a factor in initiating stomatal closure; however, transpiration continued to decline despite a constant or improved leaf water status. Maximum net photosynthetic rates occurred by 0900, and depressions throughout the remainder of the day were largely accounted for by increased leaf temperatures. Afternoon depressions in transpiration and photosynthesis occurred in twigs held at constant temperature and relative humidity, suggesting that a diurnal rhythm may be involved in control of gas exchange. Water status of plants growing on the lysimeters was comparable to that of plants in adjacent natural stands; gas exchange rates were slightly higher for the lysimeter-grown plants.
    • Transpiration and Photosynthesis in Saltcedar

      Anderson, Jay E.; Department of Biology, Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1977-04-16)
      Factors controlling transpiration and photosynthesis of saltcedar were investigated in the field near Bernardo, New Mexico. Transpiration rates were similar to those for several herbaceous species, but photosynthesis and water use efficiency were significantly lower in saltcedar. Photosynthesis was light saturated at an irradiance equal to 44% of full sunlight, while the stomata were apparently fully open at light levels greater than one-third full sunlight. Optimum leaf temperatures for photosynthesis were between 23° and 28 °C, considerably lower than typical daytime ambient temperatures. Photosynthesis was reduced about 20% at 35 °C. Stomatal resistance increased linearly with increases in leaf temperature between 14° and 50 °C, with relative humidity held constant. The increase in stomatal resistance could have been caused by direct effects of temperature on the stomata, by increases in the absolute humidity gradient from leaf to air, or by both. Increased stomatal resistance at high temperatures and low relative humidities would account for observed afternoon depressions in transpiration and photosynthesis and increases in canopy resistance. Estimates of stomatal resistance for twigs in full sunlight ranged from 2 to 6 sec cm⁻¹, with most values falling between 3 and 5 sec cm-, when leaves were at 30 °C.
    • Effect of Illuviated Deposits on Infiltration Rates and Denitrification During Sewage Effluent Recharge

      Montgomery, Errol L.; Korkosz, Emily; Dalton, Russell O., Jr.; DeWitt, Ronald H. (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1977-04-16)
      This study, conducted to determine the interrelationships among nitrogen transformations, infiltration rates, and development of the black layer found in the Santa Cruz River downstream of the Tucson (Arizona) sewage treatment plant, tested these interrelationships by percolating sewage effluent through clear acrylic columns uniformly packed with river sand for the first run, with gravel for the second run. Sewage effluent was continuously applied to three of the columns for 28 and 64 days during the first and second runs respectively. The remaining column was continuously flooded with tap water to serve as a control. Infiltration rates decreased rapidly upon application of the sewage, and within a few days a black layer developed, its thickness inversely related to the infiltration rate but not a cause of reduced flow, which is attributed, rather, to clogging of the surface by suspended solids. There was an average reduction in total nitrogen of 62.9% for the first run, and 15.9% for the second. The mechanisms of removal for run 1 were predominately absorption and denitrification, whereas the predominate removal mechanism in run 2 was filtering of organic nitrogen with adsorption and denitrification also playing an important role.
    • Soil Erosion and Sediment Control on the Reclaimed Coal Mine Lands of the Semi-arid Southwest

      Verma, Tika R.; Thames, John L.; Mills, John E.; School of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1977-04-16)
      Extensive disturbances are expected during the remainder of this century due to strip mining in the semi-arid West. Reclamation and revegetation of these disturbed areas is a slow process, primarily due to dry and harsh climatic conditions. Erosion and sediment losses are high. Monitoring of the soil erosion process is a crucial step in planning for a long lasting and stable rehabilitation of these disturbed areas. Erosion plots have been laid out to collect data for the Universal Soil Loss Equation for estimating soil loss from recontoured coal mine spoils. Effectiveness of different cultural and mechanical treatments for erosion control is also being evaluated. Since large-scale coal mining operation has just begun on the Black Mesa, preliminary data could be very effective and useful in Watershed Management planning.
    • Nonpoint-Source Pollutants to Determine Runoff Source Areas

      Lane, L. J.; Norton, H. L.; Wallace, D. E.; Wilson, R. E.; Martin, R. D.; USDA, ARS, Tucson, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1977-04-16)
      Hydrologic information is needed to understand and control water pollution from semiarid rangelands. However, the hydrologic systems under any given conditions must be understood and the effects of various land uses predicted. Based on the concept of partial area response, a runoff tracer study was conducted on two small watersheds. The watersheds were partitioned into four geomorphic subzones or hydrologic response units. Each of the four zones on both watersheds was treated with about 1 kg/ha of an individual water soluble herbicide. Runoff volumes and sources estimated using the tracers were consistent with results from simulation studies. Also, the principle of corresponding runoff and pollutant discharge rates was used to develop two methods of runoff hydrograph estimation from each of the geomorphic subzones. Method 1 matched the mean total concentration and total runoff volume. Method 2 matched the instantaneous total concentration and the instantaneous runoff rate from the entire watershed. Results from the two methods suggested that, although they may be equivalent with respect to runoff volume, Method 2 may be more consistent with respect to peak discharge.
    • Reclamation of Orphaned Mine Sites and Their Effect on the Water Quality of the Lynx Creek Watershed

      Verma, Tika R.; Felix, Ernesto N.; School of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson; USDA, Forest Service, Prescott National Forest (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1977-04-16)
      Lynx Creek Watershed is located eight miles southeast of Prescott, Arizona, on the Prescott National Forest. The watershed consists of 13,600 acres, which are National Forest Lands. Approximately 600 acres in the watershed are patented mining claims. Gold was discovered in Lynx Creek in 1863 and the watershed was extensively mined for gold, silver and copper. The aftermath of the mining has resulted in numerous mine shafts, waste dumps and mill tailing ponds that were abandoned after the ore was played out. Drainage from the orphaned mine sites contribute a certain extent of toxic mineral and sediment pollution into Lynx Creek and eventually into Lynx Lake. Lynx Creek carries runoff which is slightly acidic in nature and has high concentrations of copper, manganese, iron, zinc and sulfates. The mineral pollutants have reduced the recreational and fisheries potential of the Lake. The Sheldon Mine complex consisting of a waste dump and the mill tailing dump were considered the major sources of pollutants into the Lake. The Sheldon Tailings pond was rehabilitated during the summer of 1975 and the waste dump during the summer of 1976 as part of a reclamation study that is being sponsored by SEAM (Surface Environment and Mining). The study is being conducted cooperatively by the School of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Arizona, and the Prescott National Forest. Both sites were culturally treated and dressed with lime and topsoil. Studies are currently being conducted to measure the beneficial effects of the reclamation projects.
    • Stochastic Prediction of Sediment Yields from Strip Mine Spoils of the Arid Southwest

      Auernhamer, Mark E.; Fogel, Martin M.; Hekman, Louis H., Jr.; Thames, John L.; School of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1977-04-16)
      Mathematical simulation of the erosion process is accomplished by using a time series of hydrologic parameters as inputs into a modified form of the Universal Soil Loss Equation. A parameter to account for antecedent moisture conditions was found to improve the predictive success of the Universal Soil Loss Equation. The simulation predicts sediment yield resulting from a stochastic sequence of precipitation events on an experimental watershed. This sediment model will be used as a component in a larger, more complex hydrologic simulation model which can be used to determine optimum reclamation practices for the strip mined areas of the arid Southwest. Data from regraded strip mine spoils at the Black Mesa of Arizona are used in calibrating the model.
    • Statistical Models and Methods for Rivers in the Southwest

      Hagan, Robert M.; Department of Systems and Industrial Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1977-04-16)
      Riverflow modeling is believed useful for purposes of decision making with respect to reservoir control, irrigation planning, and flood forecasting and design of structures to contain floods. This author holds the view that present riverflow models in vogue are unsatisfactory because, for one thing, sample simulations according to these models do not resemble observed southwestern river records. The purpose of this paper is to outline a general Markov model which assumes only that rivers have a finite memory. We show how to calibrate the model from river records and then present evidence to support our contention that some success has been realized in mimicking typical flows by our simulation procedure.
    • Estimating Phreatophyte Transpiration

      Gay, Lloyd W.; Sammis, Theodore W.; School of Renewable Natural Resources, The University of Arizona, Tucson; Department of Agricultural Engineering, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1977-04-16)
      Phreatophyte transpiration on the Colorado River floodplain in western Arizona was evaluated under hot, dry, midsummer weather conditions. The simple transpiration model used related transpiration to the vapor pressure deficit of the air and to the area and the diffusion resistance of the transpiring foliage. There were no independent transpiration measurements for verification of the results. On a relative basis, however, mesquite (Prosopis sp.) transpired more rapidly per unit of leaf area than did saltcedar (Tamarix chimensis, Lour.).
    • Root System of Shrub Live Oak in Relation to Water Yield by Chaparral

      Davis, Edwin A.; USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Forestry Sciences Laboratory, Tempe, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1977-04-16)
      The root system of shrub live oak (Quercus turbinella) was studied in an initial effort to classify the major Arizona chaparral shrubs as potential users of soil water based on root system characteristics. The root system was of the generalized type with a taproot, many deeply penetrating roots, and a strong lateral root system. Roots penetrated 21 feet to bedrock through cracks and fractures in the rocky regolith. A dense network of small surface laterals radiated from the root crown and permeated the upper foot of soil. Because of its root system, shrub live oak is well adapted to utilize both ephemeral surface soil moisture as well as deeply stored moisture. Emphasis is placed on the importance of a knowledge of the root systems of chaparral shrubs and depth of the regolith in planning vegetation conversions to increase water yield.
    • Chemical Oxygen Demand of the Antitranspirant, Folicote

      Garrett, R. H.; Kynard, B. E.; School of Renewable Natural Resources, The University of Arizona, Tucson (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1977-04-16)
      During a standard bioassay using fish and the antitranspirant Folicote, a significant deoxygenation of the water was observed. Oxygen demand tests without fish using distilled water indicated that at 25 °C Folicote reduced D.O. from saturation (8 ppm) to 0.1 ppm within 60 hrs. Oxygen consumptive qualities of Folicote should be taken under consideration during actual field applications.
    • Arizona Water Policy: Changing Decision Agendas and Political Styles

      Cortner, Hanna J.; Berry, Mary P.; School of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1977-04-16)
      It is argued that Arizona has traditionally and persistently pursued a style of politics in which state government is a reactor rather than an initiator, and that its role has been subordinate to the federal government and local and private water users. The lack of adequate water policies has led to an inability to respond to new conditions and demands, such as conflicts among traditional water users, Indian claims, rising water costs, energy developments and environmental concerns. Past themes of administrative fragmentation and lack of concern over water and water planning have been responsible for these deficiencies. There is some evidence that the customary decision-making process is changing and the state is establishing its own water planning capability.
    • Bottom Sediment Analysis of the Recreational Waters of Upper Sabino Creek

      McKee, Patrick L.; Brickler, Stanley K.; School of Renewable Natural Resources, The University of Arizona, Tucson (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1977-04-16)
      Bottom sediment quality of the upper four miles of Sabino Creek in the Santa Catalina mountains near Tucson, Arizona was examined from September, 1975 through August, 1976. Two primary bottom sediment parameters were examined: 1) sediment fecal bacterial concentrations, and 2) sediment particle size distribution. Analyses of bottom sediment parameters and selected surface water parameters were conducted to ascertain interrelationships between bottom sediment quality and surface water quality. Results indicate the importance of bottom sediments in the overall quality of the Creek. Bottom sediment fecal bacterial concentrations have a significant influence on surface water fecal bacterial concentrations through suspension of sediment stored bacteria into the overlying water. Significantly higher bacterial concentrations were observed during highest recreational use periods.
    • Snowpack Density on an Arizona Mixed Conifer Forest Watershed

      Ffolliott, Peter F.; Thompson, J. R.; School of Renewable Natural Resources, The University of Arizona, Tucson; Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, USDA Forest Service, Tempe, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1977-04-16)
    • Decision Making in a Multiple-use Approach to the Reclamation of Strip-mined Lands

      Goicoechea, Ambroes; Duckstein, Lucien; Fogel, Martin; Department of Systems and Industrial Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721; Departments of Systems and Industrial Engineering and Hydrology & Water Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721; School of Renewable Natural Resources, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1977-04-16)
      With the advent of ever -increasing energy needs, large-scale surface mining has gained new impetus, and there is much concern about reclaiming the mine spoils to bring about beneficial land uses. This paper presents a decision making algorithm labeled PROTRADE, and a case study of the Black Mesa region in Northern Arizona. PROTRADE considers a set of objective functions, a set of physical constraints, articulates the preferences of the decision maker in a progressive manner, and generates a set of alternative solutions. The decision maker is then able to trade level of achievement, for each objective function, against the probability of achieving that level.
    • Rehabilitation of Copper Mine Tailing Slopes Using Municipal Sewage Effluent

      Verma, Tika R.; Ludeke, Kenneth L.; Day, A. D.; School of Renewable Natural Resources, The University of Arizona, Tucson; Cyprus Pima Mining Company, Tucson; Plant Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1977-04-16)
      The suitability of treated municipal sewage effluent for the irrigation of deep- rooting plant material for the rehabilitation of copper mine tailings was studied at the Cyprus Pima Mining Company. The effectiveness of treated sewage effluent was compared with well water on the growth and survival of trees, legumes and grasses. The species studied were eucalyptus (Eucalyptus rostrata), native mesquite (Prosopis juliflora), palo verde (Cercidium floridum), desert tobacco (Nicotiana lauca) barley (Hordeum vulgare), perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), and blue lupine (Lupinus augustifolius). Sprinkler and tree -well irrigation methods were used to apply the treated sewage effluent and well water to steep tailing slopes. The treated municipal sewage effluent was found to be a practical irrigation substitute for well water and a good source of plant nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous. Effluent produced better survival and growth than did well water with or without augmentation.
    • The Arizona Water Commission's Central Arizona Project Water Allocation Model System

      Briggs, Philip C.; Arizona Water Commission, Phoenix, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1977-04-16)
      The purpose and operation of the Central Arizona Project water allocation model system are described, based on a system analysis approach developed over the past 30 years into an interdisciplinary science for the study and resolution of complex technical management problems. The system utilizes mathematical and other simulation models designed for computer operations to effectively solve such problems as the CAP faces including those concerned with social and economic considerations. The model is composed of two major components: (1) a linear program designed to determine the optimal allocation of all sources of water to all demands and, (2) a hydrologic simulator capable of reflecting the impact of distribution alternatives on per-unit cost of delivery. The model, currently being use, has substantially contributed to a greater understanding of water usage potential in Arizona.