• Nonpoint-Source Pollutants to Determine Runoff Source Areas

      Lane, L. J.; Norton, H. L.; Wallace, D. E.; Wilson, R. E.; Martin, R. D.; USDA, ARS, Tucson, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1977-04-16)
      Hydrologic information is needed to understand and control water pollution from semiarid rangelands. However, the hydrologic systems under any given conditions must be understood and the effects of various land uses predicted. Based on the concept of partial area response, a runoff tracer study was conducted on two small watersheds. The watersheds were partitioned into four geomorphic subzones or hydrologic response units. Each of the four zones on both watersheds was treated with about 1 kg/ha of an individual water soluble herbicide. Runoff volumes and sources estimated using the tracers were consistent with results from simulation studies. Also, the principle of corresponding runoff and pollutant discharge rates was used to develop two methods of runoff hydrograph estimation from each of the geomorphic subzones. Method 1 matched the mean total concentration and total runoff volume. Method 2 matched the instantaneous total concentration and the instantaneous runoff rate from the entire watershed. Results from the two methods suggested that, although they may be equivalent with respect to runoff volume, Method 2 may be more consistent with respect to peak discharge.
    • Diurnal Trends in Water Status, Transpiration, and Photosynthesis of Saltcedar

      Williams, Mary Ellen; Anderson, Jay E.; Department of Biology, Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1977-04-16)
      Relative water content (RWC), water potential (P), and gas exchange were measured on saltcedar at the Bernardo, New Mexico, lysimeter site. RWC and s were closely correlated; but, water potential measurements, taken with a pressure bomb, were more convenient and reliable. RWC and r decreased sharply from sunup until about 0900, when minimum values of about -26 bars T or 80% RWC were reached. Water status then remained constant or improved slightly through late afternoon. Transpiration rates typically remained high until about noon and then began a steady, gradual decrease that continued throughout the afternoon. The data suggest that water stress may be a factor in initiating stomatal closure; however, transpiration continued to decline despite a constant or improved leaf water status. Maximum net photosynthetic rates occurred by 0900, and depressions throughout the remainder of the day were largely accounted for by increased leaf temperatures. Afternoon depressions in transpiration and photosynthesis occurred in twigs held at constant temperature and relative humidity, suggesting that a diurnal rhythm may be involved in control of gas exchange. Water status of plants growing on the lysimeters was comparable to that of plants in adjacent natural stands; gas exchange rates were slightly higher for the lysimeter-grown plants.
    • A Utility Criterion for Real-time Reservoir Operation

      Duckstein, Lucien; Krzysztofowicz, Roman; Departments of Systems and Industrial Engineering and Hydrology & Water Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721; Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson 85721 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1977-04-16)
      A dual purpose reservoir control problem can logically be modelled as a game against nature. The first purpose of the reservoir is flood control under uncertain inflow, which corresponds to short -range operation (SRO); the second purpose, which the present model imbeds into the first one, is water supply after the flood has receded, and corresponds to long-range operation (LRO). The reservoir manager makes release decisions based on his SRO risk. The trade-offs involved in his decision are described by a utility function, which is constructed within the framework of Keeney's multiattribute utility theory. The underlying assumptions appear to be quite natural for the reservoir control problem. To test the model, an experiment assessing the utility criterion of individuals has been performed; the results tend to confirm the plausibility of the approach. In particular, most individuals appear to have a risk-averse attitude for small floods and a risk-taking attitude for large ones.
    • Stable Isotopes of Oxygen in Plants: A Possible Paleohygrometer

      Ferhl, A. M.; Long, A.; Lerman, J. C.; University "Pierre & Marie Curie", Department of Earth Sciences, Paris, France; Laboratory of Isotope Geochemistry, Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona, Tucson (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1977-04-16)
      Ratios of oxygen-18 to oxygen-16 in cellulose of dated rings from trees grown in nature and from plants grown in controlled environments have significance for retrieving information about the environment in which they grew. Phaseolus vulgaris was grown under varying conditions of controlled temperature, humidity and ¹⁸O/ ¹⁶O of irrigation water. The ¹⁸O/ ¹⁶O in plant tissue responds mostly to different environmental relative humidity; plant tissue grown under conditions of low relative humidity produce tissue relatively high in oxygen-18. Reasons for this response are not clear to us, but the relationship may prove a useful complement to established dendroclimatologic techniques.
    • Rehabilitation of Copper Mine Tailing Slopes Using Municipal Sewage Effluent

      Verma, Tika R.; Ludeke, Kenneth L.; Day, A. D.; School of Renewable Natural Resources, The University of Arizona, Tucson; Cyprus Pima Mining Company, Tucson; Plant Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1977-04-16)
      The suitability of treated municipal sewage effluent for the irrigation of deep- rooting plant material for the rehabilitation of copper mine tailings was studied at the Cyprus Pima Mining Company. The effectiveness of treated sewage effluent was compared with well water on the growth and survival of trees, legumes and grasses. The species studied were eucalyptus (Eucalyptus rostrata), native mesquite (Prosopis juliflora), palo verde (Cercidium floridum), desert tobacco (Nicotiana lauca) barley (Hordeum vulgare), perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), and blue lupine (Lupinus augustifolius). Sprinkler and tree -well irrigation methods were used to apply the treated sewage effluent and well water to steep tailing slopes. The treated municipal sewage effluent was found to be a practical irrigation substitute for well water and a good source of plant nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous. Effluent produced better survival and growth than did well water with or without augmentation.
    • Decision Making in a Multiple-use Approach to the Reclamation of Strip-mined Lands

      Goicoechea, Ambroes; Duckstein, Lucien; Fogel, Martin; Department of Systems and Industrial Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721; Departments of Systems and Industrial Engineering and Hydrology & Water Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721; School of Renewable Natural Resources, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1977-04-16)
      With the advent of ever -increasing energy needs, large-scale surface mining has gained new impetus, and there is much concern about reclaiming the mine spoils to bring about beneficial land uses. This paper presents a decision making algorithm labeled PROTRADE, and a case study of the Black Mesa region in Northern Arizona. PROTRADE considers a set of objective functions, a set of physical constraints, articulates the preferences of the decision maker in a progressive manner, and generates a set of alternative solutions. The decision maker is then able to trade level of achievement, for each objective function, against the probability of achieving that level.
    • Bottom Sediment Analysis of the Recreational Waters of Upper Sabino Creek

      McKee, Patrick L.; Brickler, Stanley K.; School of Renewable Natural Resources, The University of Arizona, Tucson (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1977-04-16)
      Bottom sediment quality of the upper four miles of Sabino Creek in the Santa Catalina mountains near Tucson, Arizona was examined from September, 1975 through August, 1976. Two primary bottom sediment parameters were examined: 1) sediment fecal bacterial concentrations, and 2) sediment particle size distribution. Analyses of bottom sediment parameters and selected surface water parameters were conducted to ascertain interrelationships between bottom sediment quality and surface water quality. Results indicate the importance of bottom sediments in the overall quality of the Creek. Bottom sediment fecal bacterial concentrations have a significant influence on surface water fecal bacterial concentrations through suspension of sediment stored bacteria into the overlying water. Significantly higher bacterial concentrations were observed during highest recreational use periods.
    • Effects of Brush to Grass Conversion on the Hydrology and Erosion of a Semiarid Southwestern Rangeland Watershed

      Simanton, J. R.; Osborn, H. B.; Renard, K. G.; United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Western Region, Southwest Watershed Research Center, Tucson, Arizona 85705 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1977-04-16)
      Increased nutritional and economic demands for agricultural products have dictated the need for greater and more efficient use of western grass forage. Vegetation manipulation is the quickest and most economical means of increasing forage. However , the hydrologic effects must be taken into consideration before embarking on a large scale vegetation manipulated program. This study discusses the hydrologic and erosion changes measured from a 110-acre semiarid watershed which was converted from brush to grass by root plowing and seeding. Significant changes were observed in rainfall-runoff relationships as average summer runoff was considerably in excess of predictions. Sediment yield also varied, and both of these results were tied to the change in vegetative cover and post conversion rainfall conditions.
    • Chemical Oxygen Demand of the Antitranspirant, Folicote

      Garrett, R. H.; Kynard, B. E.; School of Renewable Natural Resources, The University of Arizona, Tucson (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1977-04-16)
      During a standard bioassay using fish and the antitranspirant Folicote, a significant deoxygenation of the water was observed. Oxygen demand tests without fish using distilled water indicated that at 25 °C Folicote reduced D.O. from saturation (8 ppm) to 0.1 ppm within 60 hrs. Oxygen consumptive qualities of Folicote should be taken under consideration during actual field applications.
    • A Water Supply Data Base

      Nunamaker, J. F.; Pingry, David E.; Riley, Rex; Departments of Management Information Systems and Economics, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona; Electric Power Research Institute, Inc., Palo Alto, California (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1977-04-16)
      This paper describes a water supply data base being developed for the Colorado River Basin States by the University of Arizona under contract with the Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. This data base is a guide to existing natural, technical, economic, and legal water data and water data agencies in the states of Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah and Wyoming.
    • Arizona Water Policy: Changing Decision Agendas and Political Styles

      Cortner, Hanna J.; Berry, Mary P.; School of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1977-04-16)
      It is argued that Arizona has traditionally and persistently pursued a style of politics in which state government is a reactor rather than an initiator, and that its role has been subordinate to the federal government and local and private water users. The lack of adequate water policies has led to an inability to respond to new conditions and demands, such as conflicts among traditional water users, Indian claims, rising water costs, energy developments and environmental concerns. Past themes of administrative fragmentation and lack of concern over water and water planning have been responsible for these deficiencies. There is some evidence that the customary decision-making process is changing and the state is establishing its own water planning capability.
    • Transpiration and Photosynthesis in Saltcedar

      Anderson, Jay E.; Department of Biology, Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1977-04-16)
      Factors controlling transpiration and photosynthesis of saltcedar were investigated in the field near Bernardo, New Mexico. Transpiration rates were similar to those for several herbaceous species, but photosynthesis and water use efficiency were significantly lower in saltcedar. Photosynthesis was light saturated at an irradiance equal to 44% of full sunlight, while the stomata were apparently fully open at light levels greater than one-third full sunlight. Optimum leaf temperatures for photosynthesis were between 23° and 28 °C, considerably lower than typical daytime ambient temperatures. Photosynthesis was reduced about 20% at 35 °C. Stomatal resistance increased linearly with increases in leaf temperature between 14° and 50 °C, with relative humidity held constant. The increase in stomatal resistance could have been caused by direct effects of temperature on the stomata, by increases in the absolute humidity gradient from leaf to air, or by both. Increased stomatal resistance at high temperatures and low relative humidities would account for observed afternoon depressions in transpiration and photosynthesis and increases in canopy resistance. Estimates of stomatal resistance for twigs in full sunlight ranged from 2 to 6 sec cm⁻¹, with most values falling between 3 and 5 sec cm-, when leaves were at 30 °C.
    • Distribution of Precipitation on Rugged Terrain in Central Arizona

      Osborn, Herbert B.; David, Donald Ross; USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Forestry Sciences Laboratory, Tempe, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1977-04-16)
      A 3-year study was conducted using tilted, vertical, directional, and recording rain gages (52 in all) to evaluate rainfall distribution on the Three Bar experimental watersheds in central Arizona. The tilted gages did not improve the determination of mean areal precipitation on the small watersheds because about as many tilted gages caught less rain as caught more. Although rugged and steep, the local topography exerted only minor effects on rainfall distribution compared to the major influence exerted by the Mazatzal Mountains to the windward (southwest). Forty-nine percent of wind travel was from the southwest quarter and wind averaged 4.4 mph when rain was actually falling. Wind exceeded 10 mph 9 percent of the time and 15 mph 0.4 percent of the time. Mean annual precipitation on the 600-acre study area ranged from 30 inches at 5,000 feet elevation to 22 inches at 3,400 feet (5 inches per 1,000 feet). Results of this study indicate that precipitation averages about 36 inches at 6,200 feet elevation along the Mazatzal crest near Four Peaks, about 6 inches more than published data show for the site.
    • Residual Waxes for Water Harvesting

      Fink, Dwayne H.; U. S. Water Conservation Laboratory, Phoenix, Arizona 85040 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1977-04-16)
      This study was undertaken to compare the water harvesting potential of several residual waxes with that of refined paraffin. These residual waxes could possibly have advantages over refined paraffin as a soil treatment for water-harvesting catchments in that they are byproducts rather than an end product (constituting an energy savings), are slightly cheaper, and are more adhesive and less brittle. However, these residual waxes have high physical - chemical property variability which complicates testing for utility in water-harvesting. The lack of an easily obtainable ' characterization index ' is a particular deficiency. Upon laboratory testing, several of the residual waxes were found to be superior to refined paraffin in water-repellancy, structural stability, erosion and freeze-thaw resistance and ozone and ultraviolet radiation effects. The need for further laboratory and field testing was noted.
    • An Application of Multidisciplinary Water Resources Planning and Management for the San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation: Gila River Case

      Novelle, M. E.; Percious, D. J.; Wright, N. G.; Office of Arid Lands Studies, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1977-04-16)
      The Laboratory of Native Development, Systems Analysis and Applied Technology (NADSAT) was established to provide technical assistance to southwestern Indian Tribes as an aid in the development and use of their natural resources according to their goals and objectives. NADSAT 's role is assistance and technology transfer, with an emphasis on alternative formulation and performance analysis and communicating the technological approach to tribal decision makers. The cost-effectiveness methodology provides a coherent framework and affords a mechanism for technology transfer, which makes it a useful tool in achieving tribal goals. This method was applied to the formulation of possible alternatives for use of the land and water resources of the Gila River Basin within the San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation. Criteria for devising various alternative utilization schemes are discussed, and the advantages of the cost effectiveness methodology.
    • Simulation of Summer Rainfall Occurrence in Arizona and New Mexico

      Yakowitz, Sidney; Southwest Watershed Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, Tucson, Arizona; Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1977-04-16)
      Thunderstorms produce most of the annual rainfall and almost all runoff from arid and semiarid rangelands in the southwest U.S. A model was developed to be used for predicting runoff in river basins, flood plane zonings, estimating flood damage, erosion, and sediment transport, and estimating precipitation available for forage growth. This rainfall occurrence model has three parameters: elevation, latitude and longitude, and takes into account rainfall occurrence in 22 stations located in Arizona and New Mexico. From these variables, mathematical equations were developed in an effort to predict point rainfall occurrence. Estimates of the number of seasonal occurrences were used as a check of the equations within the model.
    • Variations in Soil Moisture Under Natural Vegetation

      Sammis, T. W.; Weeks, D. L.; Agricultural Engineering Department, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces; Experimental Statistics, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1977-04-16)
      Soil water content was measured every two weeks during 1974-1975, using a neutron probe, at selected locations around the desert plant species creosote (Larria divaricata), bursage (Ambrosia deltoidea), and in an open space. The purpose of taking the measurements was to enable one to estimate the evapotranspiration rate of the desert plants by measuring soil moisture depletion. The sampling problem associated with measuring soil moisture, using neutron access tubes, is the number, location, and installation depth of the tubes. Analyses of the total soil moisture beneath the creosote plant showed greater variability between access tubes located near different plants the same distance from the crown of the plant than between tubes located around the same plant. Because of the size of the bursage plant, the variability in total soil moisture beneath the plant was greater among tubes around the same plant than between tubes at the same location at different plants.
    • Soil Erosion and Sediment Control on the Reclaimed Coal Mine Lands of the Semi-arid Southwest

      Verma, Tika R.; Thames, John L.; Mills, John E.; School of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1977-04-16)
      Extensive disturbances are expected during the remainder of this century due to strip mining in the semi-arid West. Reclamation and revegetation of these disturbed areas is a slow process, primarily due to dry and harsh climatic conditions. Erosion and sediment losses are high. Monitoring of the soil erosion process is a crucial step in planning for a long lasting and stable rehabilitation of these disturbed areas. Erosion plots have been laid out to collect data for the Universal Soil Loss Equation for estimating soil loss from recontoured coal mine spoils. Effectiveness of different cultural and mechanical treatments for erosion control is also being evaluated. Since large-scale coal mining operation has just begun on the Black Mesa, preliminary data could be very effective and useful in Watershed Management planning.
    • The Arizona Water Commission's Central Arizona Project Water Allocation Model System

      Briggs, Philip C.; Arizona Water Commission, Phoenix, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1977-04-16)
      The purpose and operation of the Central Arizona Project water allocation model system are described, based on a system analysis approach developed over the past 30 years into an interdisciplinary science for the study and resolution of complex technical management problems. The system utilizes mathematical and other simulation models designed for computer operations to effectively solve such problems as the CAP faces including those concerned with social and economic considerations. The model is composed of two major components: (1) a linear program designed to determine the optimal allocation of all sources of water to all demands and, (2) a hydrologic simulator capable of reflecting the impact of distribution alternatives on per-unit cost of delivery. The model, currently being use, has substantially contributed to a greater understanding of water usage potential in Arizona.