• An Application of Multidisciplinary Water Resources Planning and Management for the San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation: Gila River Case

      Novelle, M. E.; Percious, D. J.; Wright, N. G.; Office of Arid Lands Studies, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1977-04-16)
      The Laboratory of Native Development, Systems Analysis and Applied Technology (NADSAT) was established to provide technical assistance to southwestern Indian Tribes as an aid in the development and use of their natural resources according to their goals and objectives. NADSAT 's role is assistance and technology transfer, with an emphasis on alternative formulation and performance analysis and communicating the technological approach to tribal decision makers. The cost-effectiveness methodology provides a coherent framework and affords a mechanism for technology transfer, which makes it a useful tool in achieving tribal goals. This method was applied to the formulation of possible alternatives for use of the land and water resources of the Gila River Basin within the San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation. Criteria for devising various alternative utilization schemes are discussed, and the advantages of the cost effectiveness methodology.
    • The Arizona Water Commission's Central Arizona Project Water Allocation Model System

      Briggs, Philip C.; Arizona Water Commission, Phoenix, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1977-04-16)
      The purpose and operation of the Central Arizona Project water allocation model system are described, based on a system analysis approach developed over the past 30 years into an interdisciplinary science for the study and resolution of complex technical management problems. The system utilizes mathematical and other simulation models designed for computer operations to effectively solve such problems as the CAP faces including those concerned with social and economic considerations. The model is composed of two major components: (1) a linear program designed to determine the optimal allocation of all sources of water to all demands and, (2) a hydrologic simulator capable of reflecting the impact of distribution alternatives on per-unit cost of delivery. The model, currently being use, has substantially contributed to a greater understanding of water usage potential in Arizona.
    • Arizona Water Policy: Changing Decision Agendas and Political Styles

      Cortner, Hanna J.; Berry, Mary P.; School of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1977-04-16)
      It is argued that Arizona has traditionally and persistently pursued a style of politics in which state government is a reactor rather than an initiator, and that its role has been subordinate to the federal government and local and private water users. The lack of adequate water policies has led to an inability to respond to new conditions and demands, such as conflicts among traditional water users, Indian claims, rising water costs, energy developments and environmental concerns. Past themes of administrative fragmentation and lack of concern over water and water planning have been responsible for these deficiencies. There is some evidence that the customary decision-making process is changing and the state is establishing its own water planning capability.
    • Barometric Response of Water Levels in Flagstaff Municipal Wells

      Hibbert, Alden R.; Department of Geology, Northern Arizona University; Harshbarger and Associates, Tucson, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1977-04-16)
    • Bottom Sediment Analysis of the Recreational Waters of Upper Sabino Creek

      McKee, Patrick L.; Brickler, Stanley K.; School of Renewable Natural Resources, The University of Arizona, Tucson (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1977-04-16)
      Bottom sediment quality of the upper four miles of Sabino Creek in the Santa Catalina mountains near Tucson, Arizona was examined from September, 1975 through August, 1976. Two primary bottom sediment parameters were examined: 1) sediment fecal bacterial concentrations, and 2) sediment particle size distribution. Analyses of bottom sediment parameters and selected surface water parameters were conducted to ascertain interrelationships between bottom sediment quality and surface water quality. Results indicate the importance of bottom sediments in the overall quality of the Creek. Bottom sediment fecal bacterial concentrations have a significant influence on surface water fecal bacterial concentrations through suspension of sediment stored bacteria into the overlying water. Significantly higher bacterial concentrations were observed during highest recreational use periods.
    • Chemical Oxygen Demand of the Antitranspirant, Folicote

      Garrett, R. H.; Kynard, B. E.; School of Renewable Natural Resources, The University of Arizona, Tucson (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1977-04-16)
      During a standard bioassay using fish and the antitranspirant Folicote, a significant deoxygenation of the water was observed. Oxygen demand tests without fish using distilled water indicated that at 25 °C Folicote reduced D.O. from saturation (8 ppm) to 0.1 ppm within 60 hrs. Oxygen consumptive qualities of Folicote should be taken under consideration during actual field applications.
    • Decision Making in a Multiple-use Approach to the Reclamation of Strip-mined Lands

      Goicoechea, Ambroes; Duckstein, Lucien; Fogel, Martin; Department of Systems and Industrial Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721; Departments of Systems and Industrial Engineering and Hydrology & Water Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721; School of Renewable Natural Resources, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1977-04-16)
      With the advent of ever -increasing energy needs, large-scale surface mining has gained new impetus, and there is much concern about reclaiming the mine spoils to bring about beneficial land uses. This paper presents a decision making algorithm labeled PROTRADE, and a case study of the Black Mesa region in Northern Arizona. PROTRADE considers a set of objective functions, a set of physical constraints, articulates the preferences of the decision maker in a progressive manner, and generates a set of alternative solutions. The decision maker is then able to trade level of achievement, for each objective function, against the probability of achieving that level.
    • Distribution of Precipitation on Rugged Terrain in Central Arizona

      Osborn, Herbert B.; David, Donald Ross; USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Forestry Sciences Laboratory, Tempe, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1977-04-16)
      A 3-year study was conducted using tilted, vertical, directional, and recording rain gages (52 in all) to evaluate rainfall distribution on the Three Bar experimental watersheds in central Arizona. The tilted gages did not improve the determination of mean areal precipitation on the small watersheds because about as many tilted gages caught less rain as caught more. Although rugged and steep, the local topography exerted only minor effects on rainfall distribution compared to the major influence exerted by the Mazatzal Mountains to the windward (southwest). Forty-nine percent of wind travel was from the southwest quarter and wind averaged 4.4 mph when rain was actually falling. Wind exceeded 10 mph 9 percent of the time and 15 mph 0.4 percent of the time. Mean annual precipitation on the 600-acre study area ranged from 30 inches at 5,000 feet elevation to 22 inches at 3,400 feet (5 inches per 1,000 feet). Results of this study indicate that precipitation averages about 36 inches at 6,200 feet elevation along the Mazatzal crest near Four Peaks, about 6 inches more than published data show for the site.
    • Diurnal Trends in Water Status, Transpiration, and Photosynthesis of Saltcedar

      Williams, Mary Ellen; Anderson, Jay E.; Department of Biology, Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1977-04-16)
      Relative water content (RWC), water potential (P), and gas exchange were measured on saltcedar at the Bernardo, New Mexico, lysimeter site. RWC and s were closely correlated; but, water potential measurements, taken with a pressure bomb, were more convenient and reliable. RWC and r decreased sharply from sunup until about 0900, when minimum values of about -26 bars T or 80% RWC were reached. Water status then remained constant or improved slightly through late afternoon. Transpiration rates typically remained high until about noon and then began a steady, gradual decrease that continued throughout the afternoon. The data suggest that water stress may be a factor in initiating stomatal closure; however, transpiration continued to decline despite a constant or improved leaf water status. Maximum net photosynthetic rates occurred by 0900, and depressions throughout the remainder of the day were largely accounted for by increased leaf temperatures. Afternoon depressions in transpiration and photosynthesis occurred in twigs held at constant temperature and relative humidity, suggesting that a diurnal rhythm may be involved in control of gas exchange. Water status of plants growing on the lysimeters was comparable to that of plants in adjacent natural stands; gas exchange rates were slightly higher for the lysimeter-grown plants.
    • An Economic Analysis of the Central Arizona Project

      Barr, James L.; Pingry, David E.; Department of Economics, University of Arizona; Division of Economic and Business Research, University of Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1977-04-16)
      An economic evaluation of the Central Arizona Project was conducted with a goal of developing a simulation model of CAP costs, water operations and capital repayment alternatives. This model was compared to the actual cost experience of the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California for a realistic assessment. In addition, an effort was made to consider some of the indirect impacts of the CAP, and the overall economic outlook was summarized. In devising the simulation model CAP capital costs, CAP power supply and CAP water supply factors were considered along with user charges, management alternatives, and operations, maintenance and repair costs.
    • Effect of Illuviated Deposits on Infiltration Rates and Denitrification During Sewage Effluent Recharge

      Montgomery, Errol L.; Korkosz, Emily; Dalton, Russell O., Jr.; DeWitt, Ronald H. (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1977-04-16)
      This study, conducted to determine the interrelationships among nitrogen transformations, infiltration rates, and development of the black layer found in the Santa Cruz River downstream of the Tucson (Arizona) sewage treatment plant, tested these interrelationships by percolating sewage effluent through clear acrylic columns uniformly packed with river sand for the first run, with gravel for the second run. Sewage effluent was continuously applied to three of the columns for 28 and 64 days during the first and second runs respectively. The remaining column was continuously flooded with tap water to serve as a control. Infiltration rates decreased rapidly upon application of the sewage, and within a few days a black layer developed, its thickness inversely related to the infiltration rate but not a cause of reduced flow, which is attributed, rather, to clogging of the surface by suspended solids. There was an average reduction in total nitrogen of 62.9% for the first run, and 15.9% for the second. The mechanisms of removal for run 1 were predominately absorption and denitrification, whereas the predominate removal mechanism in run 2 was filtering of organic nitrogen with adsorption and denitrification also playing an important role.
    • Effects of Brush to Grass Conversion on the Hydrology and Erosion of a Semiarid Southwestern Rangeland Watershed

      Simanton, J. R.; Osborn, H. B.; Renard, K. G.; United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Western Region, Southwest Watershed Research Center, Tucson, Arizona 85705 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1977-04-16)
      Increased nutritional and economic demands for agricultural products have dictated the need for greater and more efficient use of western grass forage. Vegetation manipulation is the quickest and most economical means of increasing forage. However , the hydrologic effects must be taken into consideration before embarking on a large scale vegetation manipulated program. This study discusses the hydrologic and erosion changes measured from a 110-acre semiarid watershed which was converted from brush to grass by root plowing and seeding. Significant changes were observed in rainfall-runoff relationships as average summer runoff was considerably in excess of predictions. Sediment yield also varied, and both of these results were tied to the change in vegetative cover and post conversion rainfall conditions.
    • Estimating Phreatophyte Transpiration

      Gay, Lloyd W.; Sammis, Theodore W.; School of Renewable Natural Resources, The University of Arizona, Tucson; Department of Agricultural Engineering, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1977-04-16)
      Phreatophyte transpiration on the Colorado River floodplain in western Arizona was evaluated under hot, dry, midsummer weather conditions. The simple transpiration model used related transpiration to the vapor pressure deficit of the air and to the area and the diffusion resistance of the transpiring foliage. There were no independent transpiration measurements for verification of the results. On a relative basis, however, mesquite (Prosopis sp.) transpired more rapidly per unit of leaf area than did saltcedar (Tamarix chimensis, Lour.).
    • Influence of Forest Density on Bedload Movement in a Small Mountain Stream

      Heede, Burchard H.; USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Forestry Sciences Laboratory, Tempe, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1977-04-16)
      In contrast to three ephemeral streams in the vicinity, Tony Bear Creek, a small perennial stream in the White Mountains of Arizona, showed strong relationships among parameters of hydraulic geometry. Distances between gravel bars and log steps showed an inverse relationship with gradient (r² = 0.95). Shape factor and width-depth ratio increased upstream (r² = 0.98 and 0.90, respectively), indicating depth decrease toward the headwaters. The longitudinal profile is concave, and small, infrequent channel bars suggest that sediment movement is small. In contrast to the ephemeral streams, Tony Bear Creek is thus judged to be in dynamic equilibrium. Proportion of log steps to total steps (gravel bars plus logs) was much smaller in Tony Bear Creek (about 16 %) than in five other mountain streams (about 50 %). While all other streams ran through dense forests, only 60% of Tony Bear Creek was in forest, of which 13% had been selectively cut. Thus, forest density determined the proportion of logs incorporated into the stream hydraulic system, which in turn affects bedload movement.
    • A Land Imprinter for Revegetation of Barren Land Areas Through Infiltration Control

      Dixon, R. M.; Simanton, J. R.; United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Western Region, Southwest Watershed Research Center, Tucson, Arizona 85705 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1977-04-16)
      A new minimum tillage implement, "the land imprinter," has been designed and fabricated, and is currently being tested. Its design is based on water infiltration control theory developed during the past decade. The land imprinter was developed primarily for establishing vegetation in barren land areas in semiarid and arid regions of the world. It simultaneously forms interconnected downslope and cross - slope corrugations that shed water and then infiltrate it precisely where vegetative growth is to be encouraged. This controlled short distance routing of water along short waterways into small reservoirs makes more rainwater available for seed germination and seedling establishment, and less water available for loss by surface runoff and evaporation. The imprinter has only one moving part, in the form of a massive compound roller and central axle which turn together as a rigid assembly during operation. The compound roller consists of two imprint capsules which are linked together on the axle shaft by an axle pulling clamp. The core of the imprint capsule is a hollow steel cylinder (1-m diameter and 1-m long) fabricated from 1.27-cm steel plate. A variety of imprint geometries are formed by welding short lengths of specially -cut steel angles (1.27 cm x 15.24 cm x 15.24 cm) to the outer surface of the cylindrical core. Ten imprint capsules with distinctly different geometric patterns of steel angles have been developed and fabricated. By pairing these capsules in as many ways as possible, 45 different geometric patterns can be imprinted. The patterns of steel angles perform a number of different tillage functions including (1) brush and soft rock crushing, (2) brush and rock imbedding, (3) runoff inducing and directing, (4) infiltration inducing and directing, (5) biomass concentrating, (6) seedbed forming, (7) surface and vertical mulching, (8) wind and water erosion controlling, (9) surface compacting, and (10) surface trenching and pitting. Advantages of the land imprinter as compared with alternative tillage methods include (1) greater stability, diversity, complexity, and precision of surface geometric patterns; (2) better control of point infiltration, runoff, erosion, and evaporation; and (3) greater utility in brush -covered, steeply - sloping, deeply gullied, and rocky land. The land imprinter should have widespread utility in both range and croplands because of its unique ability to mold runoff -watered seedbeds that increase the probability of seed germination and seedling establishment.
    • Nonpoint-Source Pollutants to Determine Runoff Source Areas

      Lane, L. J.; Norton, H. L.; Wallace, D. E.; Wilson, R. E.; Martin, R. D.; USDA, ARS, Tucson, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1977-04-16)
      Hydrologic information is needed to understand and control water pollution from semiarid rangelands. However, the hydrologic systems under any given conditions must be understood and the effects of various land uses predicted. Based on the concept of partial area response, a runoff tracer study was conducted on two small watersheds. The watersheds were partitioned into four geomorphic subzones or hydrologic response units. Each of the four zones on both watersheds was treated with about 1 kg/ha of an individual water soluble herbicide. Runoff volumes and sources estimated using the tracers were consistent with results from simulation studies. Also, the principle of corresponding runoff and pollutant discharge rates was used to develop two methods of runoff hydrograph estimation from each of the geomorphic subzones. Method 1 matched the mean total concentration and total runoff volume. Method 2 matched the instantaneous total concentration and the instantaneous runoff rate from the entire watershed. Results from the two methods suggested that, although they may be equivalent with respect to runoff volume, Method 2 may be more consistent with respect to peak discharge.
    • Reclamation of Orphaned Mine Sites and Their Effect on the Water Quality of the Lynx Creek Watershed

      Verma, Tika R.; Felix, Ernesto N.; School of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson; USDA, Forest Service, Prescott National Forest (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1977-04-16)
      Lynx Creek Watershed is located eight miles southeast of Prescott, Arizona, on the Prescott National Forest. The watershed consists of 13,600 acres, which are National Forest Lands. Approximately 600 acres in the watershed are patented mining claims. Gold was discovered in Lynx Creek in 1863 and the watershed was extensively mined for gold, silver and copper. The aftermath of the mining has resulted in numerous mine shafts, waste dumps and mill tailing ponds that were abandoned after the ore was played out. Drainage from the orphaned mine sites contribute a certain extent of toxic mineral and sediment pollution into Lynx Creek and eventually into Lynx Lake. Lynx Creek carries runoff which is slightly acidic in nature and has high concentrations of copper, manganese, iron, zinc and sulfates. The mineral pollutants have reduced the recreational and fisheries potential of the Lake. The Sheldon Mine complex consisting of a waste dump and the mill tailing dump were considered the major sources of pollutants into the Lake. The Sheldon Tailings pond was rehabilitated during the summer of 1975 and the waste dump during the summer of 1976 as part of a reclamation study that is being sponsored by SEAM (Surface Environment and Mining). The study is being conducted cooperatively by the School of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Arizona, and the Prescott National Forest. Both sites were culturally treated and dressed with lime and topsoil. Studies are currently being conducted to measure the beneficial effects of the reclamation projects.
    • Reducing Phreatophyte Transpiration

      Davenport, David C.; Department of Land Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1977-04-16)
      Transpiration rates (T) of riparian phreatophytes can be high. Antitranspirant (AT) sprays can curtail T without the ecological imbalance made by eradication. Saltcedar (Tamarix sp.) and cottonwood (Populus sp.) in 15-gal. drums enabled replicated trials on isolated plants or on canopies. T of isolate saltcedar plants could be 2x that of plants in a fairly dense canopy. T for a unit ground area of saltcedar varied from 2.2 (sparse -) to 15.8 (dense-stand) mm/day in July at Davis. Extrapolation of experimental T data to field sites must, therefore, be made carefully. Wax -based ATs increased foliar diffusive resistance (R), and reduced T of saltcedar and cottonwood 32-38% initially and 10% after 3 weeks. R increased naturally in the afternoon when evaporative demand was high and if soil water was low. Nocturnal T of salt cedar was 10% of day T. AT effectiveness increased with a higher ratio of day: night hours, and with lower soil water stress. Therefore, AT will be most effective on long summer days in riparian areas where ground water is available.
    • Rehabilitation of Copper Mine Tailing Slopes Using Municipal Sewage Effluent

      Verma, Tika R.; Ludeke, Kenneth L.; Day, A. D.; School of Renewable Natural Resources, The University of Arizona, Tucson; Cyprus Pima Mining Company, Tucson; Plant Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1977-04-16)
      The suitability of treated municipal sewage effluent for the irrigation of deep- rooting plant material for the rehabilitation of copper mine tailings was studied at the Cyprus Pima Mining Company. The effectiveness of treated sewage effluent was compared with well water on the growth and survival of trees, legumes and grasses. The species studied were eucalyptus (Eucalyptus rostrata), native mesquite (Prosopis juliflora), palo verde (Cercidium floridum), desert tobacco (Nicotiana lauca) barley (Hordeum vulgare), perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), and blue lupine (Lupinus augustifolius). Sprinkler and tree -well irrigation methods were used to apply the treated sewage effluent and well water to steep tailing slopes. The treated municipal sewage effluent was found to be a practical irrigation substitute for well water and a good source of plant nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous. Effluent produced better survival and growth than did well water with or without augmentation.