• The Compartmented Reservoir: Efficient Water Storage in Flat Terrain Areas of Arizona

      Cluff, C. B.; Water Resources Research Center, University of Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1978-04-15)
      The compartmented reservoir is presented as an efficient method of storing water in areas of Arizona having a relatively flat terrain where there is a significant water loss through evaporation. The flat terrain makes it difficult to avoid large surface- area-to-water-volume ratios when using a conventional reservoir. Large water losses through evaporation can be reduced by compartmentalizing shallow impervious reservoirs and in flat terrain concentrating water by pumping it from one compartment to another. Concentrating the water reduces the surface-area-to-water-volume ratio to a minimum, thus decreasing evaporation losses by reducing both the temperature and exposure of the water to the atmosphere. Portable, high-capacity pumps make the method economical for small reservoirs as well as for relatively large reservoirs. Further, the amount of water available for beneficial consumption is usually more than the amount of water pumped for concentration. A Compartmented Reservoir Optimization Program (CROP-76) has been developed for selecting the optimal design configuration. The program has been utilized in designing several systems including several in Arizona. Through the use of the model, the interrelationship of the parameters have been determined. These parameters are volume, area, depth, and slope of the embankment around each compartment. These parameters interface with the parameters describing rainfall and hydrologic characteristics of the watershed. The water -yield model used in CROP-76 requires inputs of watershed area, daily precipitation and daily and maximum depletion. In addition, three sets of seasonal modifying coefficients are required either through calibration or estimated by an experienced hydrologist. The model can determine runoff from two types of watersheds, a natural and /or treated catchment. Additional inputs of CROP-76 are the surface water evaporation rate and the amount and type of consumptive use.