Proceedings of the Hydrology section of the Annual Meeting of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science. Full text manuscripts of work presented. Research related to water resources, water management, and hydrologic studies primarily focused regionally on southwestern US.

Volume 10. Proceedings of the 1980 Meetings of the Arizona Section - American Water Resources Assn. and the Hydrology Section - Arizona - Nevada Academy of Science.

April 11-12, 1980, Las Vegas, Nevada


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Recent Submissions

  • Hydrologic Evaluation of Topsoiling for Rehabilitating Black Mesa Coal Mine Lands

    Postillion, Frank G.; Bureau of Land Management, Las Vegas, Nevada (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
    Two experimental paired watersheds on Black Mesa Mine, in the Four -Corners region of Arizona were compared by several hydrologic variables in order to determine their relative capabilities for vegetative reestablishment. From July 1977 to the present, precipitation ranged from 5 to 7 inches; runoff was 7 times lower on the topsoiled watershed. Because of its structureless nature, the non-topsoiled watershed tended to crust and seal the surface. In general, the sediment yield was lower on topsoiled spoils; however, increased sediment yields were observed during intense storms, possibly reflecting the fact that the topsoil was not anchored to the underlying spoils. The non-topsoiled watershed was found to have a higher soil moisture at wilting point (13.8%) and high soluble salts (3,000-5,000 ppm), making water unavailable at higher suctions. The range of available water was higher on the non-topsoiled watershed. Tests indicated that most soil moisture water storage results from winter frontal storms of long duration. A vegetation survey indicated a more successful rate of seedling establishment (8.1 plants/m) on the topsoiled watershed, but with a high subsequent die off rate due to drought conditions. Mechanical treatment of and chemical amendments to spoils and topsoils are discussed. It is concluded that the practice of topsoiling will greatly enhance revegetation of mine spoils in arid environments. If it is necessary to directly revegetate spoil materials without topsoiling, salt and drought tolerant species are recommended.
  • Character of Earth Fissure Movement in South-Central Arizona

    Carpenter, M. C.; Boling, J. K, Jr. (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
  • Infiltration Response to Surface Plant Cover and Soil Invertebrate Population

    McGowan, Isobel R.; University of Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
  • The Importance of Arizona's Wetlands

    Rodiek, Jon; University of Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
  • Quantification Methods Developed in Conjunction with the Water Use Inventory on BLM Administered Lands in Arizona

    Goss, Marvin; USDI, Bureau of Land Management, Phoenix, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
    Standard methodologies have recently been developed to quantify water sources occurring on public lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management in Arizona. These water sources typically consist of springs, stockponds, reservoirs and other small bodies of water, and small streamflows of less than 1 c.f.s. (0.025 m³ /sec). Increasing demands for these waters as well as numerous past, on- going, and pending activities to define and adjudicate water rights necessitate that they be consistently and accurately quantified and their uses estimated. Standard methodologies to meet these requirements were essentially nonexistent within the BLM at the time the inventory of these water sources began. Emphasis has been placed on the application of simple and practical procedures based on generally accepted hydrologic principles. These methodologies will be used for quantifying an estimated 4,000 water sources on federally administered lands throughout Arizona. The methods may also be used to inventory the approximately 100,000 water sources located on federally administered lands in the other ten western states.
  • Error Analysis of Evapotranspiration Measurements

    Hartman, Robert K.; University of Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
    This paper examines the effects of random errors in the precision of latent energy estimates from the Bowen ratio model. The analysis identifies improvements in the instrumentation and in the field measurement techniques. Bowen ratio energy budget measurements were made over an extensive stand of mesquite (Prosopis pubescens) in the San Pedro River valley near Mammoth, Arizona. The error analysis indicated mean half -hour 95 percent confidence intervals for latent energy and sensible heat flux of 0.48 ± 0.09 and 0.21 ± 0.09 cal/cm²/min, respectively. A majority of the random error was associated with the temperature and humidity measurements used in the Bowen ratio model. Psychrometer circuitry and calibration procedures were modified to reduce measurement errors. Subsequent Bowen ratio measurements were made over a kochea (Kochea scoparia) pasture adjacent to the Pecos River near Roswell, New Mexico. The improvements were effective in reducing the mean half-hour 95 percent confidence intervals for latent energy and sensible heat flux to 0.27 ± 0.01 and 0.23 ± 0.01 cal/cm²/min, respectively.
  • An Evaluation of Snowmelt Lysimeters in an Arizona Mixed Conifer Stands

    Gottfried, Gerald J.; Ffolliott, Peter F.; USDA Forest Service; University of Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
  • Application of the USLE to Southwestern Rangelands

    Simanton, J. Roger; Osborn, Herbert B.; Renard, Kenneth G.; USDA, Southwest Rangeland Watershed Research Center, Tucson, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
  • Three-Dimensional Velocity Log in Groundwater

    Chagnon, Richard P.; Screens, Johnson; Johnson Screens, UOP (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
  • Computerized Depth Interval Determination of Groundwater Characteristics from Well Driller Logs

    Long, Mike; Erb, Stephen; Arizona Water Commission (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
  • Estimating Transmission Losses in Ephemeral Stream Channels

    Lane, Leonard J.; Ferreira, Virginia A.; Shirley, Edward D.; Southwest Rangeland Watershed Research Center, USDA-SEA-FR Tucson, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
    Procedures have been developed to estimate transmission loss volumes in abstracting (losing) ephemeral streams. A two -parameter linear regression equation relates outflow volume for a channel reach to the volume of inflow. A simplified two-parameter differential equation describes the transmission loss rate as a function of length and width of the wetted channel. Linkage relationships between the regression and differential equation parameters allow parameter (and thus, transmission loss) estimation for channels of arbitrary length and width. The procedure was applied using data from 10 channel reaches. Maximum loss rates were observed on Walnut Gulch, Arizona, and minimum loss rates were observed on Elm Fork of the Trinity River, Texas. All other data were between limits established at these two locations. Examples illustrate typical applications and show step-by-step procedures required to use the proposed method. Results and interpretations were summarized, and needs for additional research were specified.
  • Groundwater Exploration in Northeastern Arizona Using Landsat Imagery

    Foster, Kennith E.; DeCook, K. James; Office of Arid Lands Studies and Water Resources Research Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
    Demands for electric power generation are rapidly increasing water -supply requirements in northeastern Arizona, where groundwater pumpage is expected to escalate sixfold during the next ten years. In a study undertaken to determine the feasibility of using satellite imagery as a tool in exploring for new sources of groundwater, lineaments detected on Landsat images of two study sites in Arizona were mapped. Literature related to well data in the two study areas was researched and the data were plotted. The lineaments then were correlated with the well data by means of a well- centered grid model. Correlations developed between lineament density and water well data in the two study sites support the hypothesis that a relationship exists between regional geologic structure and the presence of groundwater, and indicate that Landsat images can be used as a tool in delineating structural features.
  • Use of Radar as a Supplement to Raingage Networks

    Osborn, Herbert B.; Simanton, J. Roger; USDA, Southwest Rangeland Watershed Research Center, Tucson, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
  • Water Impoundment Applications for SBR/Asphalt Membrane Systems

    Chambers, Carlon C.; Technology Management, Inc., Grand Junction, Colorado (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
  • Water Harvesting: Soil/Water Impacts of Salt Treatment

    Todd, Albert H.; USDA, Tahoe National Forest, Nevada City, California (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
    The responses of mined -land and natural soil materials to additions of various salt solutions in irrigation water from water harvesting were evaluated by an experimental soil column study. A pilot water harvesting agrisystem on the Black Mesa in northeastern Arizona was the source of data and soil materials used in the study. A salt leaching simulation model provided predictions for comparison to the experimental results. In general, Na, Ca, and Mg were all easily leached from both soil materials, with higher concentrations yielded from the minespoil. When sodium was applied in solution, the minespoil accumulated 20% of the amount applied in the upper 10 cm of the soil column, while the natural soil retained 50% in the upper 25 cm. In addition, the natural soil retained 60% of the Ca applied in solution. The simulation model produced good results for Na but only fair prediction of Ca and Mg. A discussion of the experimental conclusions' applicability to field conditions, the difficulties of the salt leaching model, and recommendations for further research is given.
  • The Mound and Valley Water Harvesting System: A Potential Mine Reclamation Alternative

    Constant, Charles L.; Thames, John; School of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
    A mound and valley water harvesting system was installed adjacent to Peabody Coal Company's Kayenta mine on Black Mesa in the spring of 1979. The project is testing the effects of four water catchment treatments (natural, seeded, compacted, and salted and compacted) on the establishment and production of four plant species (yellow clover, crested wheatgrass, four-wing saltbush, and western wheatgrass). The site consists of three parallel mounds or catchment areas (with 13 to 16% slope) alternating with two topsoiled (10 to 12 inches deep) collection valleys (800 feet long and 120 feet apart). This past growing season was dry (3.35 inches). Despite the drought, plants did establish and survive. The plant density was not high, but it greatly exceeded that of Peabody's reclaimed and planted areas. Even in places where some plants germinated early in the season, the subsequent dry period took an extremely high toll. At present the vegetation on the site is undergoing severe stress, but with decreasing temperatures it appears likely that survival will remain satisfactory until freezing weather. By using this technique the average cost per acre reclaimed could be reduced significantly.
  • Wax Water-Harvesting Treatment Improved with Antistripping Agent and Soil Stabilizer

    Fink, Dwayne H.; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Science and Education Administration (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
  • Well-Field Design Criteria for Coastal Seawater Development

    Popkin, Barney P.; Environmental Research Laboratory, Tucson International Airport, Tucson, Arizona 85706 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
    The University of Arizona's Environmental Research Laboratory, with the Universidad de Sonora, has operated a research station at Puerto Peñasco on the northeastern Gulf of California, Sonora, Mexico, since 1962. Research projects have included solar distillation, greenhouse agriculture, shrimp aquaculture, and halophyte irrigation. These require a dependable supply of filtered, temperate seawater. Proposed aquacultural expansion requires a large water supply. The thin, coastal, water-table coquinoid-beachrock aquifer has a high permeability, contains seawater and could sustain high yielding wells from a limited area. Well performance indicators (yield, specific capacity, efficiency and losses) are influenced by design, drilling, development and siting, and aquifer properties and hydrogeologic boundaries. Design should include full aquifer penetration, open -area screens, sized gravel pack and proper pump sutmergence. Drilling should be by mudless reverse circulation. Development should consist of simultaneous air lifting and jetting. Siting should include proximity to the recharging Gulf and adequate well spacing. Total well-field production is controlled by individual and collective well performance, and by regional hydrogeologic conditions.
  • Exploration for Saltwater Supply for Shrimp Aquaculture, Puerto Penasco, Sonora, Mexico

    DeCook, K. J.; Ince, S.; Popkin, B. P.; Schreiber, J. F., Jr.; Sumner, J. S.; Water-Supply Study Team, Water Resources Research Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
    The University of Arizona's Environmental Research Laboratory, with the Universidad de Sonora, has operated a research station at Puerto Peñasco, on the northeastern Gulf of California, since 1962. Controlled-environment shrimp aquaculture, the Laboratory's most recent research interest, requires a large, dependable supply of filtered, temperate seawater. A University Water-Supply Study Team explored for a supply in an 850-hectare site near the Estero Marua for a proposed ten-hectare shrimp farm. The study included geological, geophysical, and hydrological investigations, and consideration of groundwater, Gulf, estuarine, and combined seawater sources. A thick, fine sand, in the study area, has a very low permeability, contains highly saline water, and could sustain low yielding wells. A thin, coquinoid beachrock, along the Gulf coast near the study area, has a high permeability, contains seawater, and could sustain high yielding wells. Gulf and estuarine water sources have unacceptable temperature ranges, though they could be utilized if mixed with groundwater, stored, and insulated. Recommendations include: drilling, testing, and analysis of coquina; modeling of groundwater heat flow, water-quality effects, and potential well-field designs and impacts for beachrock development; analyzing well design and performance; relaxing temperature and salinity constraints; reusing aquacultural wastewater; and reducing water demand.

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