• Intermittent Flow Events - Salinity Loading Relationships in the Lower Colorado River Basin, Southern Nevada

      Woessner, William; Water Resources Center, Desert Research Institute, University of Nevada System, Las Vegas, Nevada (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
      The Bureau of Land Management (BLM), in recognition of the need to identify the mechanisms and significance of salinity loading from arid ephemeral drainages in the Lower Colorado River Basin, sponsored this reconnaissance effort. The principal project objectives were to sample the water quality of flash flood events over a two year period in selected drainage basins and relate field data to the probable type and magnitude of salinity loading that ungaged arid basins could contribute to the Colorado River. Remote water samplers were placed in four tributary basins along the north shore of Lake Mead. Calculated average TDS values for flows ranged from 1,270 to 2,000 mg/l. Water was generally a calcium sulfate type. TDS generally increased down -channel during an event. Estimates of peak discharges and volumes showed that the largest events occurred in the two largest drainage basins. Results of analyses based on a series of conservative assumptions showed that 2,700 and 1,200 metric tons of salt entered Lake Mead from the study area in 1978 and 1979, respectively. This influx of salt would have increased the total dissolved solids (TDS) of the Colorado River at Hoover Dam by .08 mg/l in 1978 and .04 mg/l in 1979. Extrapolation of generalized study results to include similar drainage basins associated with both Lake Mead and Lake Mohave showed that a total annual increase in TDS of .50 mg/l could be attributed to ephemeral basin runoff.
    • An Evaluation of Snowmelt Lysimeters in an Arizona Mixed Conifer Stands

      Gottfried, Gerald J.; Ffolliott, Peter F.; USDA Forest Service; University of Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
    • Character of Earth Fissure Movement in South-Central Arizona

      Carpenter, M. C.; Boling, J. K, Jr. (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
    • Three-Dimensional Velocity Log in Groundwater

      Chagnon, Richard P.; Screens, Johnson; Johnson Screens, UOP (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
    • Use of Radar as a Supplement to Raingage Networks

      Osborn, Herbert B.; Simanton, J. Roger; USDA, Southwest Rangeland Watershed Research Center, Tucson, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
    • Exploration for Saltwater Supply for Shrimp Aquaculture, Puerto Penasco, Sonora, Mexico

      DeCook, K. J.; Ince, S.; Popkin, B. P.; Schreiber, J. F., Jr.; Sumner, J. S.; Water-Supply Study Team, Water Resources Research Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
      The University of Arizona's Environmental Research Laboratory, with the Universidad de Sonora, has operated a research station at Puerto Peñasco, on the northeastern Gulf of California, since 1962. Controlled-environment shrimp aquaculture, the Laboratory's most recent research interest, requires a large, dependable supply of filtered, temperate seawater. A University Water-Supply Study Team explored for a supply in an 850-hectare site near the Estero Marua for a proposed ten-hectare shrimp farm. The study included geological, geophysical, and hydrological investigations, and consideration of groundwater, Gulf, estuarine, and combined seawater sources. A thick, fine sand, in the study area, has a very low permeability, contains highly saline water, and could sustain low yielding wells. A thin, coquinoid beachrock, along the Gulf coast near the study area, has a high permeability, contains seawater, and could sustain high yielding wells. Gulf and estuarine water sources have unacceptable temperature ranges, though they could be utilized if mixed with groundwater, stored, and insulated. Recommendations include: drilling, testing, and analysis of coquina; modeling of groundwater heat flow, water-quality effects, and potential well-field designs and impacts for beachrock development; analyzing well design and performance; relaxing temperature and salinity constraints; reusing aquacultural wastewater; and reducing water demand.
    • Computerized Depth Interval Determination of Groundwater Characteristics from Well Driller Logs

      Long, Mike; Erb, Stephen; Arizona Water Commission (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
    • Snowpack Dynamics in Arizona's Aspen Forests

      Timmer, Michael J.; Ffolliott, Peter F.; Rasmussen, William O.; School of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
    • Snow Interception as Influenced by Forest Canopy Variables

      Biroudian, Nader; Avery, Charles; School of Forestry, Northern Arizona University (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
    • Factors to Consider in Drafting Standards to Protect Groundwaters in Arizona

      Bennett, Marc M.; Arizona Department of Health Services (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
      A summary of factors which need to be addressed when drafting standards to protect groundwater is presented based on research of existing and proposed groundwater quality standards in several states. Options available for each factor are offered as possible choices.
    • Irrigation Management and Water Policy: Opportunities to Conserve Water in Arizona

      Ayer, Harry W.; Hoyt, Paul G.; Natural Resource Economics Division, ESCS, USDA, Tucson, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
    • A Multi-Objective Approach to River Basin Planning

      Gershon, Mark; McAniff, Richard; Duckstein, Lucien; Department of Systems and Industrial Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
    • Error Analysis of Evapotranspiration Measurements

      Hartman, Robert K.; University of Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
      This paper examines the effects of random errors in the precision of latent energy estimates from the Bowen ratio model. The analysis identifies improvements in the instrumentation and in the field measurement techniques. Bowen ratio energy budget measurements were made over an extensive stand of mesquite (Prosopis pubescens) in the San Pedro River valley near Mammoth, Arizona. The error analysis indicated mean half -hour 95 percent confidence intervals for latent energy and sensible heat flux of 0.48 ± 0.09 and 0.21 ± 0.09 cal/cm²/min, respectively. A majority of the random error was associated with the temperature and humidity measurements used in the Bowen ratio model. Psychrometer circuitry and calibration procedures were modified to reduce measurement errors. Subsequent Bowen ratio measurements were made over a kochea (Kochea scoparia) pasture adjacent to the Pecos River near Roswell, New Mexico. The improvements were effective in reducing the mean half-hour 95 percent confidence intervals for latent energy and sensible heat flux to 0.27 ± 0.01 and 0.23 ± 0.01 cal/cm²/min, respectively.
    • Prediction of the Chemical Quality of Streamflow by an Interactive Computer Model

      Rasmussen, William O.; Ffolliott, Peter F.; School of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
    • Application of the USLE to Southwestern Rangelands

      Simanton, J. Roger; Osborn, Herbert B.; Renard, Kenneth G.; USDA, Southwest Rangeland Watershed Research Center, Tucson, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
    • Groundwater Exploration in Northeastern Arizona Using Landsat Imagery

      Foster, Kennith E.; DeCook, K. James; Office of Arid Lands Studies and Water Resources Research Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
      Demands for electric power generation are rapidly increasing water -supply requirements in northeastern Arizona, where groundwater pumpage is expected to escalate sixfold during the next ten years. In a study undertaken to determine the feasibility of using satellite imagery as a tool in exploring for new sources of groundwater, lineaments detected on Landsat images of two study sites in Arizona were mapped. Literature related to well data in the two study areas was researched and the data were plotted. The lineaments then were correlated with the well data by means of a well- centered grid model. Correlations developed between lineament density and water well data in the two study sites support the hypothesis that a relationship exists between regional geologic structure and the presence of groundwater, and indicate that Landsat images can be used as a tool in delineating structural features.
    • Well-Field Design Criteria for Coastal Seawater Development

      Popkin, Barney P.; Environmental Research Laboratory, Tucson International Airport, Tucson, Arizona 85706 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
      The University of Arizona's Environmental Research Laboratory, with the Universidad de Sonora, has operated a research station at Puerto Peñasco on the northeastern Gulf of California, Sonora, Mexico, since 1962. Research projects have included solar distillation, greenhouse agriculture, shrimp aquaculture, and halophyte irrigation. These require a dependable supply of filtered, temperate seawater. Proposed aquacultural expansion requires a large water supply. The thin, coastal, water-table coquinoid-beachrock aquifer has a high permeability, contains seawater and could sustain high yielding wells from a limited area. Well performance indicators (yield, specific capacity, efficiency and losses) are influenced by design, drilling, development and siting, and aquifer properties and hydrogeologic boundaries. Design should include full aquifer penetration, open -area screens, sized gravel pack and proper pump sutmergence. Drilling should be by mudless reverse circulation. Development should consist of simultaneous air lifting and jetting. Siting should include proximity to the recharging Gulf and adequate well spacing. Total well-field production is controlled by individual and collective well performance, and by regional hydrogeologic conditions.
    • Origin, Development, and Chemical Character of a Perched Water Zone, Harquahala Valley, Arizona

      Graf, Charles G.; Arizona Water Commission (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
    • Water Impoundment Applications for SBR/Asphalt Membrane Systems

      Chambers, Carlon C.; Technology Management, Inc., Grand Junction, Colorado (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
    • Water-Awareness in Tucson, Arizona: A Case Study

      Buckley, Kebba; University of Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)