• Error Analysis of Evapotranspiration Measurements

      Hartman, Robert K.; University of Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
      This paper examines the effects of random errors in the precision of latent energy estimates from the Bowen ratio model. The analysis identifies improvements in the instrumentation and in the field measurement techniques. Bowen ratio energy budget measurements were made over an extensive stand of mesquite (Prosopis pubescens) in the San Pedro River valley near Mammoth, Arizona. The error analysis indicated mean half -hour 95 percent confidence intervals for latent energy and sensible heat flux of 0.48 ± 0.09 and 0.21 ± 0.09 cal/cm²/min, respectively. A majority of the random error was associated with the temperature and humidity measurements used in the Bowen ratio model. Psychrometer circuitry and calibration procedures were modified to reduce measurement errors. Subsequent Bowen ratio measurements were made over a kochea (Kochea scoparia) pasture adjacent to the Pecos River near Roswell, New Mexico. The improvements were effective in reducing the mean half-hour 95 percent confidence intervals for latent energy and sensible heat flux to 0.27 ± 0.01 and 0.23 ± 0.01 cal/cm²/min, respectively.
    • Quantification Methods Developed in Conjunction with the Water Use Inventory on BLM Administered Lands in Arizona

      Goss, Marvin; USDI, Bureau of Land Management, Phoenix, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
      Standard methodologies have recently been developed to quantify water sources occurring on public lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management in Arizona. These water sources typically consist of springs, stockponds, reservoirs and other small bodies of water, and small streamflows of less than 1 c.f.s. (0.025 m³ /sec). Increasing demands for these waters as well as numerous past, on- going, and pending activities to define and adjudicate water rights necessitate that they be consistently and accurately quantified and their uses estimated. Standard methodologies to meet these requirements were essentially nonexistent within the BLM at the time the inventory of these water sources began. Emphasis has been placed on the application of simple and practical procedures based on generally accepted hydrologic principles. These methodologies will be used for quantifying an estimated 4,000 water sources on federally administered lands throughout Arizona. The methods may also be used to inventory the approximately 100,000 water sources located on federally administered lands in the other ten western states.
    • Wax Water-Harvesting Treatment Improved with Antistripping Agent and Soil Stabilizer

      Fink, Dwayne H.; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Science and Education Administration (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
    • Seasonal and Spatial Trends of Ephemeral Flow in the Tucson Basin: Implications for Ground Water Recharge

      Keith, Susan J.; Water Resources Research Center, University of Arizona, Tucson (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
    • Groundwater Exploration in Northeastern Arizona Using Landsat Imagery

      Foster, Kennith E.; DeCook, K. James; Office of Arid Lands Studies and Water Resources Research Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
      Demands for electric power generation are rapidly increasing water -supply requirements in northeastern Arizona, where groundwater pumpage is expected to escalate sixfold during the next ten years. In a study undertaken to determine the feasibility of using satellite imagery as a tool in exploring for new sources of groundwater, lineaments detected on Landsat images of two study sites in Arizona were mapped. Literature related to well data in the two study areas was researched and the data were plotted. The lineaments then were correlated with the well data by means of a well- centered grid model. Correlations developed between lineament density and water well data in the two study sites support the hypothesis that a relationship exists between regional geologic structure and the presence of groundwater, and indicate that Landsat images can be used as a tool in delineating structural features.
    • Use of Radar as a Supplement to Raingage Networks

      Osborn, Herbert B.; Simanton, J. Roger; USDA, Southwest Rangeland Watershed Research Center, Tucson, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
    • Snowpack Dynamics in Arizona's Aspen Forests

      Timmer, Michael J.; Ffolliott, Peter F.; Rasmussen, William O.; School of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
    • Exploration for Saltwater Supply for Shrimp Aquaculture, Puerto Penasco, Sonora, Mexico

      DeCook, K. J.; Ince, S.; Popkin, B. P.; Schreiber, J. F., Jr.; Sumner, J. S.; Water-Supply Study Team, Water Resources Research Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
      The University of Arizona's Environmental Research Laboratory, with the Universidad de Sonora, has operated a research station at Puerto Peñasco, on the northeastern Gulf of California, since 1962. Controlled-environment shrimp aquaculture, the Laboratory's most recent research interest, requires a large, dependable supply of filtered, temperate seawater. A University Water-Supply Study Team explored for a supply in an 850-hectare site near the Estero Marua for a proposed ten-hectare shrimp farm. The study included geological, geophysical, and hydrological investigations, and consideration of groundwater, Gulf, estuarine, and combined seawater sources. A thick, fine sand, in the study area, has a very low permeability, contains highly saline water, and could sustain low yielding wells. A thin, coquinoid beachrock, along the Gulf coast near the study area, has a high permeability, contains seawater, and could sustain high yielding wells. Gulf and estuarine water sources have unacceptable temperature ranges, though they could be utilized if mixed with groundwater, stored, and insulated. Recommendations include: drilling, testing, and analysis of coquina; modeling of groundwater heat flow, water-quality effects, and potential well-field designs and impacts for beachrock development; analyzing well design and performance; relaxing temperature and salinity constraints; reusing aquacultural wastewater; and reducing water demand.
    • Estimating Transmission Losses in Ephemeral Stream Channels

      Lane, Leonard J.; Ferreira, Virginia A.; Shirley, Edward D.; Southwest Rangeland Watershed Research Center, USDA-SEA-FR Tucson, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
      Procedures have been developed to estimate transmission loss volumes in abstracting (losing) ephemeral streams. A two -parameter linear regression equation relates outflow volume for a channel reach to the volume of inflow. A simplified two-parameter differential equation describes the transmission loss rate as a function of length and width of the wetted channel. Linkage relationships between the regression and differential equation parameters allow parameter (and thus, transmission loss) estimation for channels of arbitrary length and width. The procedure was applied using data from 10 channel reaches. Maximum loss rates were observed on Walnut Gulch, Arizona, and minimum loss rates were observed on Elm Fork of the Trinity River, Texas. All other data were between limits established at these two locations. Examples illustrate typical applications and show step-by-step procedures required to use the proposed method. Results and interpretations were summarized, and needs for additional research were specified.
    • Well-Field Design Criteria for Coastal Seawater Development

      Popkin, Barney P.; Environmental Research Laboratory, Tucson International Airport, Tucson, Arizona 85706 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
      The University of Arizona's Environmental Research Laboratory, with the Universidad de Sonora, has operated a research station at Puerto Peñasco on the northeastern Gulf of California, Sonora, Mexico, since 1962. Research projects have included solar distillation, greenhouse agriculture, shrimp aquaculture, and halophyte irrigation. These require a dependable supply of filtered, temperate seawater. Proposed aquacultural expansion requires a large water supply. The thin, coastal, water-table coquinoid-beachrock aquifer has a high permeability, contains seawater and could sustain high yielding wells from a limited area. Well performance indicators (yield, specific capacity, efficiency and losses) are influenced by design, drilling, development and siting, and aquifer properties and hydrogeologic boundaries. Design should include full aquifer penetration, open -area screens, sized gravel pack and proper pump sutmergence. Drilling should be by mudless reverse circulation. Development should consist of simultaneous air lifting and jetting. Siting should include proximity to the recharging Gulf and adequate well spacing. Total well-field production is controlled by individual and collective well performance, and by regional hydrogeologic conditions.
    • The Northwest Area Water Plan - Tucson, Arizona

      McLean, Thomas M.; Tucson Water (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
      In May, 1979, the City of Tucson entered into contractual agreements with three private water companies to ensure 100 year adequacy and to manage scarce water resources within a large area northwest of Tucson. These agreements implemented the Northwest Area Water Plan. The Northwest Area Water Plan provides a mechanism by which local and imported water sources can be cooperatively managed by the City of Tucson and local private water companies within the Northwest Water Service Area. This plan has been developed to complement agreements for water service between the City of Tucson and private water companies and is an integral part of those agreements. The purpose of this plan is to identify those facilities and associated costs which provide, on a regional basis, a permanent, cost-effective water supply to new customers within the Northwest Water Service Area. The basic plan approach is to utilize existing local groundwater to the fullest extent possible while maintaining local water tables at their present levels. This will be accomplished through the planning, design, and construction of an import water supply system to meet the base demands of customers within the Northwest Water Service Area and the conjunctive management of local well capacity and storage reservoirs to meet the variable peak demands and fire flow requirements.
    • Impacts of a New Water Resources Management Plan for Tucson, Arizona

      Johnson, R. Bruce; Tucson Water (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
      Major events during the summer of 1974 led to the beginning of a new, progressive program of water resources management for the City of Tucson. Critical supply shortages during the 1974 peak demand period brought into sharp community focus the need to reassess the previously existing philosophy of meeting continually increasing demand for water with extensive capital construction. An analysis of the impacts resultant from unmanaged peak demands, increased water level declines, potential land surface subsidence, projected increased operational costs and changes in water quality led staff and consultants to formulate and recommend the "Beat the Peak" program. A new philosophy on basin -wide groundwater withdrawals was implemented along with additional programs designed to evaluate the effect of our continued dependence on local groundwater sources. The results of this new management approach have been impressive. Per capita water consumption has been voluntarily reduced, total groundwater pumpage has been reduced and the potential for land surface subsidence is being actively evaluated resulting in direct benefits to Tucson Water and the customers it serves.
    • Hydrologic Evaluation of Topsoiling for Rehabilitating Black Mesa Coal Mine Lands

      Postillion, Frank G.; Bureau of Land Management, Las Vegas, Nevada (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
      Two experimental paired watersheds on Black Mesa Mine, in the Four -Corners region of Arizona were compared by several hydrologic variables in order to determine their relative capabilities for vegetative reestablishment. From July 1977 to the present, precipitation ranged from 5 to 7 inches; runoff was 7 times lower on the topsoiled watershed. Because of its structureless nature, the non-topsoiled watershed tended to crust and seal the surface. In general, the sediment yield was lower on topsoiled spoils; however, increased sediment yields were observed during intense storms, possibly reflecting the fact that the topsoil was not anchored to the underlying spoils. The non-topsoiled watershed was found to have a higher soil moisture at wilting point (13.8%) and high soluble salts (3,000-5,000 ppm), making water unavailable at higher suctions. The range of available water was higher on the non-topsoiled watershed. Tests indicated that most soil moisture water storage results from winter frontal storms of long duration. A vegetation survey indicated a more successful rate of seedling establishment (8.1 plants/m) on the topsoiled watershed, but with a high subsequent die off rate due to drought conditions. Mechanical treatment of and chemical amendments to spoils and topsoils are discussed. It is concluded that the practice of topsoiling will greatly enhance revegetation of mine spoils in arid environments. If it is necessary to directly revegetate spoil materials without topsoiling, salt and drought tolerant species are recommended.
    • Evaluating and Displaying Watershed Tradeoffs for Management

      Solomon, Rhey M.; Schmidt, Larry J.; USDA Forest Service, Albuquerque, New Mexico (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
      Relating water concerns and interactions to land managers has been a challenge met with only partial success. A methodology was developed that incorporates graphical techniques to visually display potentials, tradeoffs, and effects of resource management activities. This technique was applied to chaparral and ponderosa pine ecosystems to show applications to the scientist and also the nontechnical manager. Up to five variables can be displayed in a way that enable quick understandable tradeoff evaluations.
    • Intermittent Flow Events - Salinity Loading Relationships in the Lower Colorado River Basin, Southern Nevada

      Woessner, William; Water Resources Center, Desert Research Institute, University of Nevada System, Las Vegas, Nevada (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
      The Bureau of Land Management (BLM), in recognition of the need to identify the mechanisms and significance of salinity loading from arid ephemeral drainages in the Lower Colorado River Basin, sponsored this reconnaissance effort. The principal project objectives were to sample the water quality of flash flood events over a two year period in selected drainage basins and relate field data to the probable type and magnitude of salinity loading that ungaged arid basins could contribute to the Colorado River. Remote water samplers were placed in four tributary basins along the north shore of Lake Mead. Calculated average TDS values for flows ranged from 1,270 to 2,000 mg/l. Water was generally a calcium sulfate type. TDS generally increased down -channel during an event. Estimates of peak discharges and volumes showed that the largest events occurred in the two largest drainage basins. Results of analyses based on a series of conservative assumptions showed that 2,700 and 1,200 metric tons of salt entered Lake Mead from the study area in 1978 and 1979, respectively. This influx of salt would have increased the total dissolved solids (TDS) of the Colorado River at Hoover Dam by .08 mg/l in 1978 and .04 mg/l in 1979. Extrapolation of generalized study results to include similar drainage basins associated with both Lake Mead and Lake Mohave showed that a total annual increase in TDS of .50 mg/l could be attributed to ephemeral basin runoff.
    • Water Quality Analyses of the Colorado River Corridor of Grand Canyon

      Tunnicliff, Brock; Brickler, Stanley K.; University of Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
      Water quality research of the Colorado River corridor of Grand Canyon examines important relationships between densities of fecal coliform bacteria in surface water and underlying bottom sediments. Surface water sampling alone does not accurately reflect baseline water quality status of natural recreational waters, as sediments often harbor microbial densities in several orders of magnitude of overlying waters. Water-based recreation activities and natural wave and current processes can resuspend sediment and associated microbial populations, including enteric pathogens. Data show significant associations between surface water and bottom sediment microbial populations, demonstrating the importance of a combined sampling approach to water quality analyses.
    • Hydraulic Modeling for Capital Improvements Planning

      Davis, Stephen E.; Tucson Water (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
      The Tucson Water Department has developed a long-range water master plan utilizing a computerized hydraulic modeling system from which to determine size and phasing of major water capital improvements. Alternative water sources and amounts were modeled under a fifty-year peak demand condition. Nodal pressure, pipeline headloss, and reservoir drawdown results were evaluated against pre -set standards to determine the optimal solution to the supply- demand balance. A mid-range demand condition for 1990 was modeled subsequent to the modeling of the 2030 planning horizon to incorporate a major domestic water source change. Sizing of new facilities will he based upon the long-range solution. Phasing of capital improvements will he based upon existing system deficiencies, rate and spatial distribution of growth, delivery date of new imported surface supply, and the availability of funds for water project construction.
    • Character of Earth Fissure Movement in South-Central Arizona

      Carpenter, M. C.; Boling, J. K, Jr. (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
    • A Multi-Objective Approach to River Basin Planning

      Gershon, Mark; McAniff, Richard; Duckstein, Lucien; Department of Systems and Industrial Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)