• Application of the USLE to Southwestern Rangelands

      Simanton, J. Roger; Osborn, Herbert B.; Renard, Kenneth G.; USDA, Southwest Rangeland Watershed Research Center, Tucson, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
    • Changes in Water Rates and Water Consumption in Tucson, 1974 to 1978

      Griffin, Adrian H.; Wade, James C.; Martin, William E.; University of Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
    • Character of Earth Fissure Movement in South-Central Arizona

      Carpenter, M. C.; Boling, J. K, Jr. (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
    • Computerized Depth Interval Determination of Groundwater Characteristics from Well Driller Logs

      Long, Mike; Erb, Stephen; Arizona Water Commission (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
    • Error Analysis of Evapotranspiration Measurements

      Hartman, Robert K.; University of Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
      This paper examines the effects of random errors in the precision of latent energy estimates from the Bowen ratio model. The analysis identifies improvements in the instrumentation and in the field measurement techniques. Bowen ratio energy budget measurements were made over an extensive stand of mesquite (Prosopis pubescens) in the San Pedro River valley near Mammoth, Arizona. The error analysis indicated mean half -hour 95 percent confidence intervals for latent energy and sensible heat flux of 0.48 ± 0.09 and 0.21 ± 0.09 cal/cm²/min, respectively. A majority of the random error was associated with the temperature and humidity measurements used in the Bowen ratio model. Psychrometer circuitry and calibration procedures were modified to reduce measurement errors. Subsequent Bowen ratio measurements were made over a kochea (Kochea scoparia) pasture adjacent to the Pecos River near Roswell, New Mexico. The improvements were effective in reducing the mean half-hour 95 percent confidence intervals for latent energy and sensible heat flux to 0.27 ± 0.01 and 0.23 ± 0.01 cal/cm²/min, respectively.
    • Estimating Transmission Losses in Ephemeral Stream Channels

      Lane, Leonard J.; Ferreira, Virginia A.; Shirley, Edward D.; Southwest Rangeland Watershed Research Center, USDA-SEA-FR Tucson, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
      Procedures have been developed to estimate transmission loss volumes in abstracting (losing) ephemeral streams. A two -parameter linear regression equation relates outflow volume for a channel reach to the volume of inflow. A simplified two-parameter differential equation describes the transmission loss rate as a function of length and width of the wetted channel. Linkage relationships between the regression and differential equation parameters allow parameter (and thus, transmission loss) estimation for channels of arbitrary length and width. The procedure was applied using data from 10 channel reaches. Maximum loss rates were observed on Walnut Gulch, Arizona, and minimum loss rates were observed on Elm Fork of the Trinity River, Texas. All other data were between limits established at these two locations. Examples illustrate typical applications and show step-by-step procedures required to use the proposed method. Results and interpretations were summarized, and needs for additional research were specified.
    • Evaluating and Displaying Watershed Tradeoffs for Management

      Solomon, Rhey M.; Schmidt, Larry J.; USDA Forest Service, Albuquerque, New Mexico (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
      Relating water concerns and interactions to land managers has been a challenge met with only partial success. A methodology was developed that incorporates graphical techniques to visually display potentials, tradeoffs, and effects of resource management activities. This technique was applied to chaparral and ponderosa pine ecosystems to show applications to the scientist and also the nontechnical manager. Up to five variables can be displayed in a way that enable quick understandable tradeoff evaluations.
    • An Evaluation of Snowmelt Lysimeters in an Arizona Mixed Conifer Stands

      Gottfried, Gerald J.; Ffolliott, Peter F.; USDA Forest Service; University of Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
    • Exploration for Saltwater Supply for Shrimp Aquaculture, Puerto Penasco, Sonora, Mexico

      DeCook, K. J.; Ince, S.; Popkin, B. P.; Schreiber, J. F., Jr.; Sumner, J. S.; Water-Supply Study Team, Water Resources Research Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
      The University of Arizona's Environmental Research Laboratory, with the Universidad de Sonora, has operated a research station at Puerto Peñasco, on the northeastern Gulf of California, since 1962. Controlled-environment shrimp aquaculture, the Laboratory's most recent research interest, requires a large, dependable supply of filtered, temperate seawater. A University Water-Supply Study Team explored for a supply in an 850-hectare site near the Estero Marua for a proposed ten-hectare shrimp farm. The study included geological, geophysical, and hydrological investigations, and consideration of groundwater, Gulf, estuarine, and combined seawater sources. A thick, fine sand, in the study area, has a very low permeability, contains highly saline water, and could sustain low yielding wells. A thin, coquinoid beachrock, along the Gulf coast near the study area, has a high permeability, contains seawater, and could sustain high yielding wells. Gulf and estuarine water sources have unacceptable temperature ranges, though they could be utilized if mixed with groundwater, stored, and insulated. Recommendations include: drilling, testing, and analysis of coquina; modeling of groundwater heat flow, water-quality effects, and potential well-field designs and impacts for beachrock development; analyzing well design and performance; relaxing temperature and salinity constraints; reusing aquacultural wastewater; and reducing water demand.
    • Factors to Consider in Drafting Standards to Protect Groundwaters in Arizona

      Bennett, Marc M.; Arizona Department of Health Services (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
      A summary of factors which need to be addressed when drafting standards to protect groundwater is presented based on research of existing and proposed groundwater quality standards in several states. Options available for each factor are offered as possible choices.
    • Groundwater Exploration in Northeastern Arizona Using Landsat Imagery

      Foster, Kennith E.; DeCook, K. James; Office of Arid Lands Studies and Water Resources Research Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
      Demands for electric power generation are rapidly increasing water -supply requirements in northeastern Arizona, where groundwater pumpage is expected to escalate sixfold during the next ten years. In a study undertaken to determine the feasibility of using satellite imagery as a tool in exploring for new sources of groundwater, lineaments detected on Landsat images of two study sites in Arizona were mapped. Literature related to well data in the two study areas was researched and the data were plotted. The lineaments then were correlated with the well data by means of a well- centered grid model. Correlations developed between lineament density and water well data in the two study sites support the hypothesis that a relationship exists between regional geologic structure and the presence of groundwater, and indicate that Landsat images can be used as a tool in delineating structural features.
    • Hydraulic Modeling for Capital Improvements Planning

      Davis, Stephen E.; Tucson Water (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
      The Tucson Water Department has developed a long-range water master plan utilizing a computerized hydraulic modeling system from which to determine size and phasing of major water capital improvements. Alternative water sources and amounts were modeled under a fifty-year peak demand condition. Nodal pressure, pipeline headloss, and reservoir drawdown results were evaluated against pre -set standards to determine the optimal solution to the supply- demand balance. A mid-range demand condition for 1990 was modeled subsequent to the modeling of the 2030 planning horizon to incorporate a major domestic water source change. Sizing of new facilities will he based upon the long-range solution. Phasing of capital improvements will he based upon existing system deficiencies, rate and spatial distribution of growth, delivery date of new imported surface supply, and the availability of funds for water project construction.
    • Hydrologic Evaluation of Topsoiling for Rehabilitating Black Mesa Coal Mine Lands

      Postillion, Frank G.; Bureau of Land Management, Las Vegas, Nevada (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
      Two experimental paired watersheds on Black Mesa Mine, in the Four -Corners region of Arizona were compared by several hydrologic variables in order to determine their relative capabilities for vegetative reestablishment. From July 1977 to the present, precipitation ranged from 5 to 7 inches; runoff was 7 times lower on the topsoiled watershed. Because of its structureless nature, the non-topsoiled watershed tended to crust and seal the surface. In general, the sediment yield was lower on topsoiled spoils; however, increased sediment yields were observed during intense storms, possibly reflecting the fact that the topsoil was not anchored to the underlying spoils. The non-topsoiled watershed was found to have a higher soil moisture at wilting point (13.8%) and high soluble salts (3,000-5,000 ppm), making water unavailable at higher suctions. The range of available water was higher on the non-topsoiled watershed. Tests indicated that most soil moisture water storage results from winter frontal storms of long duration. A vegetation survey indicated a more successful rate of seedling establishment (8.1 plants/m) on the topsoiled watershed, but with a high subsequent die off rate due to drought conditions. Mechanical treatment of and chemical amendments to spoils and topsoils are discussed. It is concluded that the practice of topsoiling will greatly enhance revegetation of mine spoils in arid environments. If it is necessary to directly revegetate spoil materials without topsoiling, salt and drought tolerant species are recommended.
    • Impacts of a New Water Resources Management Plan for Tucson, Arizona

      Johnson, R. Bruce; Tucson Water (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
      Major events during the summer of 1974 led to the beginning of a new, progressive program of water resources management for the City of Tucson. Critical supply shortages during the 1974 peak demand period brought into sharp community focus the need to reassess the previously existing philosophy of meeting continually increasing demand for water with extensive capital construction. An analysis of the impacts resultant from unmanaged peak demands, increased water level declines, potential land surface subsidence, projected increased operational costs and changes in water quality led staff and consultants to formulate and recommend the "Beat the Peak" program. A new philosophy on basin -wide groundwater withdrawals was implemented along with additional programs designed to evaluate the effect of our continued dependence on local groundwater sources. The results of this new management approach have been impressive. Per capita water consumption has been voluntarily reduced, total groundwater pumpage has been reduced and the potential for land surface subsidence is being actively evaluated resulting in direct benefits to Tucson Water and the customers it serves.
    • The Importance of Arizona's Wetlands

      Rodiek, Jon; University of Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
    • Infiltration Response to Surface Plant Cover and Soil Invertebrate Population

      McGowan, Isobel R.; University of Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
    • Intermittent Flow Events - Salinity Loading Relationships in the Lower Colorado River Basin, Southern Nevada

      Woessner, William; Water Resources Center, Desert Research Institute, University of Nevada System, Las Vegas, Nevada (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
      The Bureau of Land Management (BLM), in recognition of the need to identify the mechanisms and significance of salinity loading from arid ephemeral drainages in the Lower Colorado River Basin, sponsored this reconnaissance effort. The principal project objectives were to sample the water quality of flash flood events over a two year period in selected drainage basins and relate field data to the probable type and magnitude of salinity loading that ungaged arid basins could contribute to the Colorado River. Remote water samplers were placed in four tributary basins along the north shore of Lake Mead. Calculated average TDS values for flows ranged from 1,270 to 2,000 mg/l. Water was generally a calcium sulfate type. TDS generally increased down -channel during an event. Estimates of peak discharges and volumes showed that the largest events occurred in the two largest drainage basins. Results of analyses based on a series of conservative assumptions showed that 2,700 and 1,200 metric tons of salt entered Lake Mead from the study area in 1978 and 1979, respectively. This influx of salt would have increased the total dissolved solids (TDS) of the Colorado River at Hoover Dam by .08 mg/l in 1978 and .04 mg/l in 1979. Extrapolation of generalized study results to include similar drainage basins associated with both Lake Mead and Lake Mohave showed that a total annual increase in TDS of .50 mg/l could be attributed to ephemeral basin runoff.
    • Irrigation Management and Water Policy: Opportunities to Conserve Water in Arizona

      Ayer, Harry W.; Hoyt, Paul G.; Natural Resource Economics Division, ESCS, USDA, Tucson, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
    • The Mound and Valley Water Harvesting System: A Potential Mine Reclamation Alternative

      Constant, Charles L.; Thames, John; School of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
      A mound and valley water harvesting system was installed adjacent to Peabody Coal Company's Kayenta mine on Black Mesa in the spring of 1979. The project is testing the effects of four water catchment treatments (natural, seeded, compacted, and salted and compacted) on the establishment and production of four plant species (yellow clover, crested wheatgrass, four-wing saltbush, and western wheatgrass). The site consists of three parallel mounds or catchment areas (with 13 to 16% slope) alternating with two topsoiled (10 to 12 inches deep) collection valleys (800 feet long and 120 feet apart). This past growing season was dry (3.35 inches). Despite the drought, plants did establish and survive. The plant density was not high, but it greatly exceeded that of Peabody's reclaimed and planted areas. Even in places where some plants germinated early in the season, the subsequent dry period took an extremely high toll. At present the vegetation on the site is undergoing severe stress, but with decreasing temperatures it appears likely that survival will remain satisfactory until freezing weather. By using this technique the average cost per acre reclaimed could be reduced significantly.