• Origin, Development, and Chemical Character of a Perched Water Zone, Harquahala Valley, Arizona

      Graf, Charles G.; Arizona Water Commission (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
    • An Evaluation of Snowmelt Lysimeters in an Arizona Mixed Conifer Stands

      Gottfried, Gerald J.; Ffolliott, Peter F.; USDA Forest Service; University of Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
    • Water Harvesting: Soil/Water Impacts of Salt Treatment

      Todd, Albert H.; USDA, Tahoe National Forest, Nevada City, California (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
      The responses of mined -land and natural soil materials to additions of various salt solutions in irrigation water from water harvesting were evaluated by an experimental soil column study. A pilot water harvesting agrisystem on the Black Mesa in northeastern Arizona was the source of data and soil materials used in the study. A salt leaching simulation model provided predictions for comparison to the experimental results. In general, Na, Ca, and Mg were all easily leached from both soil materials, with higher concentrations yielded from the minespoil. When sodium was applied in solution, the minespoil accumulated 20% of the amount applied in the upper 10 cm of the soil column, while the natural soil retained 50% in the upper 25 cm. In addition, the natural soil retained 60% of the Ca applied in solution. The simulation model produced good results for Na but only fair prediction of Ca and Mg. A discussion of the experimental conclusions' applicability to field conditions, the difficulties of the salt leaching model, and recommendations for further research is given.
    • A Multi-Objective Approach to River Basin Planning

      Gershon, Mark; McAniff, Richard; Duckstein, Lucien; Department of Systems and Industrial Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
    • Estimating Transmission Losses in Ephemeral Stream Channels

      Lane, Leonard J.; Ferreira, Virginia A.; Shirley, Edward D.; Southwest Rangeland Watershed Research Center, USDA-SEA-FR Tucson, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
      Procedures have been developed to estimate transmission loss volumes in abstracting (losing) ephemeral streams. A two -parameter linear regression equation relates outflow volume for a channel reach to the volume of inflow. A simplified two-parameter differential equation describes the transmission loss rate as a function of length and width of the wetted channel. Linkage relationships between the regression and differential equation parameters allow parameter (and thus, transmission loss) estimation for channels of arbitrary length and width. The procedure was applied using data from 10 channel reaches. Maximum loss rates were observed on Walnut Gulch, Arizona, and minimum loss rates were observed on Elm Fork of the Trinity River, Texas. All other data were between limits established at these two locations. Examples illustrate typical applications and show step-by-step procedures required to use the proposed method. Results and interpretations were summarized, and needs for additional research were specified.
    • Socio-Economic Impacts of the Safe Drinking Water Act on Arizona's Water Systems

      Williamson, Richard S.; Safe Drinking Water Unit, Arizona Department of Health Services (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
    • Computerized Depth Interval Determination of Groundwater Characteristics from Well Driller Logs

      Long, Mike; Erb, Stephen; Arizona Water Commission (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
    • Snow Interception as Influenced by Forest Canopy Variables

      Biroudian, Nader; Avery, Charles; School of Forestry, Northern Arizona University (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
    • Prediction of the Chemical Quality of Streamflow by an Interactive Computer Model

      Rasmussen, William O.; Ffolliott, Peter F.; School of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
    • Changes in Water Rates and Water Consumption in Tucson, 1974 to 1978

      Griffin, Adrian H.; Wade, James C.; Martin, William E.; University of Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
    • Well-Field Design Criteria for Coastal Seawater Development

      Popkin, Barney P.; Environmental Research Laboratory, Tucson International Airport, Tucson, Arizona 85706 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
      The University of Arizona's Environmental Research Laboratory, with the Universidad de Sonora, has operated a research station at Puerto Peñasco on the northeastern Gulf of California, Sonora, Mexico, since 1962. Research projects have included solar distillation, greenhouse agriculture, shrimp aquaculture, and halophyte irrigation. These require a dependable supply of filtered, temperate seawater. Proposed aquacultural expansion requires a large water supply. The thin, coastal, water-table coquinoid-beachrock aquifer has a high permeability, contains seawater and could sustain high yielding wells from a limited area. Well performance indicators (yield, specific capacity, efficiency and losses) are influenced by design, drilling, development and siting, and aquifer properties and hydrogeologic boundaries. Design should include full aquifer penetration, open -area screens, sized gravel pack and proper pump sutmergence. Drilling should be by mudless reverse circulation. Development should consist of simultaneous air lifting and jetting. Siting should include proximity to the recharging Gulf and adequate well spacing. Total well-field production is controlled by individual and collective well performance, and by regional hydrogeologic conditions.
    • Evaluating and Displaying Watershed Tradeoffs for Management

      Solomon, Rhey M.; Schmidt, Larry J.; USDA Forest Service, Albuquerque, New Mexico (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
      Relating water concerns and interactions to land managers has been a challenge met with only partial success. A methodology was developed that incorporates graphical techniques to visually display potentials, tradeoffs, and effects of resource management activities. This technique was applied to chaparral and ponderosa pine ecosystems to show applications to the scientist and also the nontechnical manager. Up to five variables can be displayed in a way that enable quick understandable tradeoff evaluations.
    • The Importance of Arizona's Wetlands

      Rodiek, Jon; University of Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
    • Infiltration Response to Surface Plant Cover and Soil Invertebrate Population

      McGowan, Isobel R.; University of Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
    • Irrigation Management and Water Policy: Opportunities to Conserve Water in Arizona

      Ayer, Harry W.; Hoyt, Paul G.; Natural Resource Economics Division, ESCS, USDA, Tucson, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
    • Impacts of a New Water Resources Management Plan for Tucson, Arizona

      Johnson, R. Bruce; Tucson Water (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
      Major events during the summer of 1974 led to the beginning of a new, progressive program of water resources management for the City of Tucson. Critical supply shortages during the 1974 peak demand period brought into sharp community focus the need to reassess the previously existing philosophy of meeting continually increasing demand for water with extensive capital construction. An analysis of the impacts resultant from unmanaged peak demands, increased water level declines, potential land surface subsidence, projected increased operational costs and changes in water quality led staff and consultants to formulate and recommend the "Beat the Peak" program. A new philosophy on basin -wide groundwater withdrawals was implemented along with additional programs designed to evaluate the effect of our continued dependence on local groundwater sources. The results of this new management approach have been impressive. Per capita water consumption has been voluntarily reduced, total groundwater pumpage has been reduced and the potential for land surface subsidence is being actively evaluated resulting in direct benefits to Tucson Water and the customers it serves.