• Changes in Water Rates and Water Consumption in Tucson, 1974 to 1978

      Griffin, Adrian H.; Wade, James C.; Martin, William E.; University of Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
    • Socio-Economic Impacts of the Safe Drinking Water Act on Arizona's Water Systems

      Williamson, Richard S.; Safe Drinking Water Unit, Arizona Department of Health Services (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
    • Prediction of the Chemical Quality of Streamflow by an Interactive Computer Model

      Rasmussen, William O.; Ffolliott, Peter F.; School of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
    • Well-Field Design Criteria for Coastal Seawater Development

      Popkin, Barney P.; Environmental Research Laboratory, Tucson International Airport, Tucson, Arizona 85706 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
      The University of Arizona's Environmental Research Laboratory, with the Universidad de Sonora, has operated a research station at Puerto Peñasco on the northeastern Gulf of California, Sonora, Mexico, since 1962. Research projects have included solar distillation, greenhouse agriculture, shrimp aquaculture, and halophyte irrigation. These require a dependable supply of filtered, temperate seawater. Proposed aquacultural expansion requires a large water supply. The thin, coastal, water-table coquinoid-beachrock aquifer has a high permeability, contains seawater and could sustain high yielding wells from a limited area. Well performance indicators (yield, specific capacity, efficiency and losses) are influenced by design, drilling, development and siting, and aquifer properties and hydrogeologic boundaries. Design should include full aquifer penetration, open -area screens, sized gravel pack and proper pump sutmergence. Drilling should be by mudless reverse circulation. Development should consist of simultaneous air lifting and jetting. Siting should include proximity to the recharging Gulf and adequate well spacing. Total well-field production is controlled by individual and collective well performance, and by regional hydrogeologic conditions.
    • The Importance of Arizona's Wetlands

      Rodiek, Jon; University of Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
    • Infiltration Response to Surface Plant Cover and Soil Invertebrate Population

      McGowan, Isobel R.; University of Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
    • Evaluating and Displaying Watershed Tradeoffs for Management

      Solomon, Rhey M.; Schmidt, Larry J.; USDA Forest Service, Albuquerque, New Mexico (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
      Relating water concerns and interactions to land managers has been a challenge met with only partial success. A methodology was developed that incorporates graphical techniques to visually display potentials, tradeoffs, and effects of resource management activities. This technique was applied to chaparral and ponderosa pine ecosystems to show applications to the scientist and also the nontechnical manager. Up to five variables can be displayed in a way that enable quick understandable tradeoff evaluations.
    • Seasonal and Spatial Trends of Ephemeral Flow in the Tucson Basin: Implications for Ground Water Recharge

      Keith, Susan J.; Water Resources Research Center, University of Arizona, Tucson (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
    • Wax Water-Harvesting Treatment Improved with Antistripping Agent and Soil Stabilizer

      Fink, Dwayne H.; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Science and Education Administration (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
    • The Mound and Valley Water Harvesting System: A Potential Mine Reclamation Alternative

      Constant, Charles L.; Thames, John; School of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
      A mound and valley water harvesting system was installed adjacent to Peabody Coal Company's Kayenta mine on Black Mesa in the spring of 1979. The project is testing the effects of four water catchment treatments (natural, seeded, compacted, and salted and compacted) on the establishment and production of four plant species (yellow clover, crested wheatgrass, four-wing saltbush, and western wheatgrass). The site consists of three parallel mounds or catchment areas (with 13 to 16% slope) alternating with two topsoiled (10 to 12 inches deep) collection valleys (800 feet long and 120 feet apart). This past growing season was dry (3.35 inches). Despite the drought, plants did establish and survive. The plant density was not high, but it greatly exceeded that of Peabody's reclaimed and planted areas. Even in places where some plants germinated early in the season, the subsequent dry period took an extremely high toll. At present the vegetation on the site is undergoing severe stress, but with decreasing temperatures it appears likely that survival will remain satisfactory until freezing weather. By using this technique the average cost per acre reclaimed could be reduced significantly.
    • Snowpack Dynamics in Arizona's Aspen Forests

      Timmer, Michael J.; Ffolliott, Peter F.; Rasmussen, William O.; School of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
    • Impacts of a New Water Resources Management Plan for Tucson, Arizona

      Johnson, R. Bruce; Tucson Water (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
      Major events during the summer of 1974 led to the beginning of a new, progressive program of water resources management for the City of Tucson. Critical supply shortages during the 1974 peak demand period brought into sharp community focus the need to reassess the previously existing philosophy of meeting continually increasing demand for water with extensive capital construction. An analysis of the impacts resultant from unmanaged peak demands, increased water level declines, potential land surface subsidence, projected increased operational costs and changes in water quality led staff and consultants to formulate and recommend the "Beat the Peak" program. A new philosophy on basin -wide groundwater withdrawals was implemented along with additional programs designed to evaluate the effect of our continued dependence on local groundwater sources. The results of this new management approach have been impressive. Per capita water consumption has been voluntarily reduced, total groundwater pumpage has been reduced and the potential for land surface subsidence is being actively evaluated resulting in direct benefits to Tucson Water and the customers it serves.
    • Use of Radar as a Supplement to Raingage Networks

      Osborn, Herbert B.; Simanton, J. Roger; USDA, Southwest Rangeland Watershed Research Center, Tucson, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
    • Error Analysis of Evapotranspiration Measurements

      Hartman, Robert K.; University of Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
      This paper examines the effects of random errors in the precision of latent energy estimates from the Bowen ratio model. The analysis identifies improvements in the instrumentation and in the field measurement techniques. Bowen ratio energy budget measurements were made over an extensive stand of mesquite (Prosopis pubescens) in the San Pedro River valley near Mammoth, Arizona. The error analysis indicated mean half -hour 95 percent confidence intervals for latent energy and sensible heat flux of 0.48 ± 0.09 and 0.21 ± 0.09 cal/cm²/min, respectively. A majority of the random error was associated with the temperature and humidity measurements used in the Bowen ratio model. Psychrometer circuitry and calibration procedures were modified to reduce measurement errors. Subsequent Bowen ratio measurements were made over a kochea (Kochea scoparia) pasture adjacent to the Pecos River near Roswell, New Mexico. The improvements were effective in reducing the mean half-hour 95 percent confidence intervals for latent energy and sensible heat flux to 0.27 ± 0.01 and 0.23 ± 0.01 cal/cm²/min, respectively.
    • Intermittent Flow Events - Salinity Loading Relationships in the Lower Colorado River Basin, Southern Nevada

      Woessner, William; Water Resources Center, Desert Research Institute, University of Nevada System, Las Vegas, Nevada (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
      The Bureau of Land Management (BLM), in recognition of the need to identify the mechanisms and significance of salinity loading from arid ephemeral drainages in the Lower Colorado River Basin, sponsored this reconnaissance effort. The principal project objectives were to sample the water quality of flash flood events over a two year period in selected drainage basins and relate field data to the probable type and magnitude of salinity loading that ungaged arid basins could contribute to the Colorado River. Remote water samplers were placed in four tributary basins along the north shore of Lake Mead. Calculated average TDS values for flows ranged from 1,270 to 2,000 mg/l. Water was generally a calcium sulfate type. TDS generally increased down -channel during an event. Estimates of peak discharges and volumes showed that the largest events occurred in the two largest drainage basins. Results of analyses based on a series of conservative assumptions showed that 2,700 and 1,200 metric tons of salt entered Lake Mead from the study area in 1978 and 1979, respectively. This influx of salt would have increased the total dissolved solids (TDS) of the Colorado River at Hoover Dam by .08 mg/l in 1978 and .04 mg/l in 1979. Extrapolation of generalized study results to include similar drainage basins associated with both Lake Mead and Lake Mohave showed that a total annual increase in TDS of .50 mg/l could be attributed to ephemeral basin runoff.
    • Quantification Methods Developed in Conjunction with the Water Use Inventory on BLM Administered Lands in Arizona

      Goss, Marvin; USDI, Bureau of Land Management, Phoenix, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
      Standard methodologies have recently been developed to quantify water sources occurring on public lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management in Arizona. These water sources typically consist of springs, stockponds, reservoirs and other small bodies of water, and small streamflows of less than 1 c.f.s. (0.025 m³ /sec). Increasing demands for these waters as well as numerous past, on- going, and pending activities to define and adjudicate water rights necessitate that they be consistently and accurately quantified and their uses estimated. Standard methodologies to meet these requirements were essentially nonexistent within the BLM at the time the inventory of these water sources began. Emphasis has been placed on the application of simple and practical procedures based on generally accepted hydrologic principles. These methodologies will be used for quantifying an estimated 4,000 water sources on federally administered lands throughout Arizona. The methods may also be used to inventory the approximately 100,000 water sources located on federally administered lands in the other ten western states.