Popkin, Barney P. (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
The University of Arizona's Environmental Research Laboratory, with the Universidad de Sonora, has operated a research station at Puerto Peñasco on the northeastern Gulf of California, Sonora, Mexico, since 1962. Research projects have included solar distillation, greenhouse agriculture, shrimp aquaculture, and halophyte irrigation. These require a dependable supply of filtered, temperate seawater. Proposed aquacultural expansion requires a large water supply. The thin, coastal, water-table coquinoid-beachrock aquifer has a high permeability, contains seawater and could sustain high yielding wells from a limited area. Well performance indicators (yield, specific capacity, efficiency and losses) are influenced by design, drilling, development and siting, and aquifer properties and hydrogeologic boundaries. Design should include full aquifer penetration, open -area screens, sized gravel pack and proper pump sutmergence. Drilling should be by mudless reverse circulation. Development should consist of simultaneous air lifting and jetting. Siting should include proximity to the recharging Gulf and adequate well spacing. Total well-field production is controlled by individual and collective well performance, and by regional hydrogeologic conditions.
Foster, Kennith E.; DeCook, K. James (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
Demands for electric power generation are rapidly increasing water -supply requirements in northeastern Arizona, where groundwater pumpage is expected to escalate sixfold during the next ten years. In a study undertaken to determine the feasibility of using satellite imagery as a tool in exploring for new sources of groundwater, lineaments detected on Landsat images of two study sites in Arizona were mapped. Literature related to well data in the two study areas was researched and the data were plotted. The lineaments then were correlated with the well data by means of a well- centered grid model. Correlations developed between lineament density and water well data in the two study sites support the hypothesis that a relationship exists between regional geologic structure and the presence of groundwater, and indicate that Landsat images can be used as a tool in delineating structural features.
Woessner, William (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1980-04-12)
The Bureau of Land Management (BLM), in recognition of the need to identify the mechanisms and significance of salinity loading from arid ephemeral drainages in the Lower Colorado River Basin, sponsored this reconnaissance effort. The principal project objectives were to sample the water quality of flash flood events over a two year period in selected drainage basins and relate field data to the probable type and magnitude of salinity loading that ungaged arid basins could contribute to the Colorado River. Remote water samplers were placed in four tributary basins along the north shore of Lake Mead. Calculated average TDS values for flows ranged from 1,270 to 2,000 mg/l. Water was generally a calcium sulfate type. TDS generally increased down -channel during an event. Estimates of peak discharges and volumes showed that the largest events occurred in the two largest drainage basins. Results of analyses based on a series of conservative assumptions showed that 2,700 and 1,200 metric tons of salt entered Lake Mead from the study area in 1978 and 1979, respectively. This influx of salt would have increased the total dissolved solids (TDS) of the Colorado River at Hoover Dam by .08 mg/l in 1978 and .04 mg/l in 1979. Extrapolation of generalized study results to include similar drainage basins associated with both Lake Mead and Lake Mohave showed that a total annual increase in TDS of .50 mg/l could be attributed to ephemeral basin runoff.
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