Browsing Hydrology and Water Resources in Arizona and the Southwest, Volume 04 (1974) by Subjects
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Applicability of the Universal Soil Loss Equation to Semiarid Rangeland Conditions in the SouthwestAn erosion prediction method that has recently received wide attention in the United States is the universal soil loss equation which is given as: a=rklscp. Where a = estimated soil loss (tons/acre/year), r = a rainfall factor, k = a soil erodibility factor, l = a slope length factor, s = a slope gradient factor, c = a cropping-management factor, and p = an erosion control practice factor. Data collected on the walnut gulch experimental watershed in southeastern Arizona were used to estimate these factors for semiarid rangeland conditions. The equation was then tested with data from watersheds of 108 and 372 acres. The predicted value of annual sediment yield was 1.29 tons/acre/year as compared with an average 1.64 tons/acre/year for 4 years of data for the 108-acre watershed, and a sediment yield of 0.39 tons/acre/year was predicted for the 372-acre watershed as compared with the measured value of 0.52 tons/acre/year. Although good agreement was noted between predicted and actual sediment yield, additional work is needed before the equation can be applied to other areas of the southwest.
Hydrologic Aspects of Land-Use Planning at Tumamoc Hill, Tucson, ArizonaTumamoc Hill, an 869-acre (352 ha) desert area near Tucson, Arizona, is being considered as a controlled- access environmental site. Water affects the site's geology, soils, vegetation, wildlife, and archaeology. The Hill is drained by three small watersheds. The largest is rapidly urbanizing upstream. Hydrologic aspects include potential flooding and erosion hazards. These may be reduced simply, economically, and wisely in a land-use plan. Upstream development increases storm runoff volumes, and flood peaks, and frequencies routed through the site, and threatens existing downstream urban development. Return periods of channel-overflow floods become shorter with urbanization. The region may be managed to reduce hydrologic hazards by three procedures: widen channels, install low checkdams, and vegetate drainageways. These methods will slow down runoff velocities, and increase cross -sectional area of flow and roughness coefficient. More water would also be available for vegetation and wildlife. The land-use plan should include environmental education programs. These would present important effects of water on the natural ecology, and hydrologic aspects of watershed urbanization.