Browsing Hydrology and Water Resources in Arizona and the Southwest, Volume 04 (1974) by Subjects
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Preliminary Investigations of the Hydrologic Properties of Diatremes in the Hopi Buttes, ArizonaDiatremes of Late Pliocene age in the Hopi Buttes area of Arizona are becoming increasingly important sources of groundwater to the Indian nations. These volcanic vent structures are prime sources of groundwater because sedimentary formations in the Hopi Buttes area yield only limited amounts of water or yield poor quality water. Diatremes act as traps for groundwater and some have yielded moderate amounts of good quality water to wells. Surface geologic investigations and analysis of drillers' logs indicate that structural relationships and diatreme lithology provide a means to project the hydrologic properties of the vent. Diatremes most suitable for groundwater development should have a diameter greater than one half mile, should contain volcanic tuff and breccia at its center, and should be fractured from collapse. Lava flows covering diatremes reduce recharge from sheet wash or from ephemeral stream flow. Data from geomagnetic and gravity surveys will be analyzed to determine its suitability for predicting subsurface size, shape, and lithology of the diatreme. The integration of geophysical and surface geologic data will reveal the total geometry of the structure enabling the most accurate appraisal of the hydrologic properties of the diatreme.
Structural Relations Determined from Interpretation of Geophysical Surveys: Woody Mountain Well Field, Coconino County, ArizonaThe Coconino Sandstone of Permian age is the principal aquifer for the Woody Mountain well field, a source of municipal water for the City of Flagstaff. Wells of highest yield are located where the frequency of occurrence of faults is greatest and where the principal aquifer is down-faulted. The locations and displacements of all but the most prominent faults cannot be determined using conventional geologic mapping techniques because relatively undeformed Late Cenozoic basaltic lavas cover the faulted Paleozoic rock terrain. Approximately 3,500 feet of Paleozoic sedimentary rocks, which have little magnetic effect and which have a density of approximately 2.4, comprise most of the stratigraphic section in the well field. The basalt cover is strongly reversely magnetized and has a density of approximately 2.7. Changes in thickness of the basalt cover cause changes in the geomagnetic and gravitational field strength. Analysis of data from geomagnetic and gravity surveys was used to delineate boundaries and thicknesses of blocks of basalt which fill down -faulted areas. The correlation coefficient (r² = 0.96) for plots of known thicknesses of basalt versus complete Bouguer anomaly supports use of gravity data to estimate displacement of down -faulted blocks.
Water Resources of the Inner Basin of San Francisco Volcano, Coconino County, ArizonaThe inner basin is a collapse and erosional feature in San Francisco Mountain, an extinct volcano of late Cenozoic age, which lies approximately eight miles north of flagstaff, Arizona. The main aquifer's coefficient of transmissibility is approximately 14,000 gallons per day per foot and the storage coefficient was 0.08. Aquifer boundaries increased rates of drawdown of water levels in the inner basin well field. Inner basin springs which issue from perched reservoirs are not affected by pumpage of inner basin wells. Recharge is greater than the average yield from springs and wells in the basin which has an average of 8,000 acre-feet of water in storage in the principal aquifer. A large amount of water is lost from the inner basin aquifer system via leakage into underlying fractured volcanic rocks. It is believed that a part of this water could be intercepted by pumpage from a well constructed in the interior valley.