• Wastewater - A Resource

      Fain, Norm; Wilson & Company Engineers, Phoenix, Arizona 85044 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1991-04-20)
      As the Southwest United States grows and develops, one basic resource becomes a primary necessity for survival: Water. Currently, accepted sources are being consumed at a higher rate than nature replenishes them. This is necessitating the need to find and develop new water resources. In conjunction with the proper treatment and management, wastewater is a water resource, known as reuse. Properly managed, reused water can augment the available water supply. Primary applications include irrigation of agricultural and landscaped areas, surface water recreational areas, and groundwater recharge. These uses relieve the demands on the generally accepted water resources, thus increasing the net water supply. The required level of treatment varies with the intended reuse application. Treatment levels for reuse range from secondary to tertiary treatment systems. Some reuse applications provide additional treatment to the water. The reuser must assure that the treatment system and reuse application provide an equal or improved water quality to that of the receiving body of water. Regardless of the application, stringent operation and maintenance of the reuse system is essential. A well planned management program will minimize hazards associated with reuse of wastewater. This program is required to keep the liabilities of both the treatment plant and reuse site owners to a minimum. Without this, reuse is not a viable option. The underlying questions remain to determine the feasibility of reuse for a community: Does the water supply require augmentation to meet the demands of the future? Is the Owner willing to address and implement a diligent system management program?
    • Water Resource Management in the Lake Baikal Region

      Amalfi, Frederick A.; Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1991-04-20)
      In August 1990, a team of North American and Soviet researchers travelled to several cities on the shores of Lake Baikal in southern Siberia. The purpose of the investigation was to develop a means of protecting and restoring the world's oldest and largest volume lake. Lack of water resource management strategies was identified as the key factor which may result in further deterioration of lake water quality and the diversity of biota which it supports. Deforestation, antiquated agricultural practices, inadequate solid and liquid waste disposal, and industrial contamination threaten the aesthetic quality and commercial uses of the lake. The recommendations of the joint investigative committee are summarized.
    • Winter Course of Transpiration in Arizona Ponderosa Pine Trees

      Ffolliott, Peter F.; School of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1991-04-20)