• Kuwait Water Harvesting System: Final Report

      Cluff, C. Brent; Water Resources Research Center (1990-07-30)
      Introduction: The potential of water harvesting is sometimes overlooked in areas of low rainfall that is less than 200 mm. However it is precisely in these areas that the value of water is very high making efficient water harvesting economically viable. A water harvesting system is composed of an improved watershed that is made to be more impervious than in its natural state plus a storage reservoir. In this study a computer program was used using Kuwait daily rainfall and evaporation data. The program was used to determine how much water can be produced on a continuous basis using an efficient water harvesting system.
    • Pine Water Association Slow Sand/Nanofiltration Demonstration Plant: Design Report

      Pine Water Association (1990-06)
      Introduction: The Pine Water Association presently serves approximately 130 people domestic water and irrigation water in separate systems. Their water comes from a spring but flows in a creekbed before being diverted for domestic and irrigation use. As a result during storm runoff and snowmelt the water contains some sediment. Presently there is no filtration on the system. A sedimentation chamber plus chlorination is the only water treatment. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recently instituted a new requirement that all surface treated water has to be filtered. Lois Krebs of the Pine Water Association visited the 20,000 gallons per day (GPD) Consolidated Water Utilities Pilot Nanofiltration Plan on Sept. 8, 1989. This facility is approximately the same size that is needed by the Pine Water Association. However the nanofiltration capacity will need to be doubled due to a reduction in production during colder weather. Following this visit the Pine Water Association requested the University of Arizona help with the plant and a contract was signed.
    • Assist in Developing ASTM Standards for Soil-Core Monitoring and for Pore-Liquid Sampling in the Vadose Zone: Summary of Project

      Dorrance, David W.; Wilson, L. G.; Water Resources Research Center; Water Resources Research Center (1989-06-30)
    • Efficient and Equitable Solution of Indian Reserved Rights: Final Report

      Lord, William B.; McGuire, Thomas R.; Wallace, Mary G. (Water Resources Research Center, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1989-06-21)
      The water rights claims of many Indian reservations in the West are now under adjudication. Frequently, the parties to these adjudications acknowledge that their interests may be better served through negotiated settlements, but they lack comprehensive means for determining mutually acceptable solutions to the conflicts. The research conducted under the title of "Efficient and Equitable Solution of Indian Reserved Rights" (Project #14-08-0001-G1320) sought to 1) develop a conceptual basis for determining Indian water rights; 2) develop an analytical procedure to provide the information needed to resolve water rights conflicts; and 3) apply this analytical procedure to a test case involving the Gila River Basin in Arizona. The methodological core of the research is a set of linked models, encompassing historical, hydrologic, economic, psychological, and institutional elements of the conflict. Hydrologic, institutional, and economic analyses of conjunctive management of surface and groundwater supplies were facilitated by the use of MODSIM, a network optimization model. Data from the model enabled the investigators to construct an impact matrix, defining the effect of each possible settlement option on the goals of the parties. The preferences of the parties were elicited through social judgement analysis. Twelve settlement options were defined on the basis of knowledge of other negotiated settlements, and a final option, representing possible outcomes should the negotiation process fail, was included in the analysis. The next step was to model the possible choices available the contending parties, utilizing an n-person cooperative game framework. This analysis indicated that a set of three settlement options dominated the adjudication option for all players. Each of these included the provision of imported water in lieu of water currently being used in the basin. It is anticipated that the results of this research will be developed as a book-length manuscript by the principal investigators and the research team.
    • The Ground-Water Pollution Potential of Dry Wells in Pima County, Arizona

      Wilson, L. G.; Osborn, M. D.; Olson, K. L.; Maida, S. M.; Katz, L. T.; Water Resources Research Center; Water Resources Research Center; Water Resources Research Center; Water Resources Research Center; Water Resources Research Center (Water Resources Research Center, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1989-06)
      Preface: Tucson Water, the City of Tucson, funded two phases of a project to evaluate the potential of dry wells in the Tucson area to pollute ground water. The first phase entailed inventorying existing dry wells in the area and assessing pollutants in settling chamber sediment in candidate wells from the three major classes of wells, industrial, commercial, and residential. The second phase of the study involved detailed investigations at "worst case" industrial and commercial sites. Similar studies at a residential (apartment complex) site were funded by Pima County Department of Transportation and Flood Control District. This document reports the results of the second phase studies.
    • Test of Nanofilter Method of Testing Recharged Municipal Effluent: Project Report

      Cluff, C. Brent; Amy, Gary L.; Dutt, Gordon R.; Gerba, Charles P.; Alleman, Bruce C.; Kutz, Susan M.; Amer, Saud A.; Hickman, Carl E.; Water Resources Research Center; Department of Civil Engineering; et al. (University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1989-03)
      Introduction: The nanofilter is a relatively new water treatment option that has been commercially available since 1986. The name nanofilter is used here as a generic name rather than a specific product name. There are at least five companies that make filter elements that can be classified as nanofilters (City of Ft. Myers, 1987). The nanofilter operates on a molecular scale and is related to reverse osmosis. Simply stated, this process treats water by forcing it through a porous membrane. The water molecules are able to pass through the membrane, as well as some of the smaller organic and inorganic molecules in the water. The larger organic and inorganic molecules are removed. The nanofilter will remove most of the dissolved solids (salinity) and hardness plus a large percentage of the dissolved organic matter including trihalomethanes (THM) precursors and essentially all of the bacteria and viruses. THM and TOX precursors are naturally occurring organics (humic and fluvic acids) that will produce THMs and organic halogens (TOX) (both are suspected carcinogens) when disinfectants such as chlorine or chloramines are added to the water. Nanofiltration has a built in safety feature in that the membrane compresses slightly as it ages which produces even better quality of water over time. In contrast activated charcoal has to be continously monitored to make sure its absorption capacity has not been used up, the quality of water deteriates over time. Nanofiltration, sometimes called membrane softening, is designed to be used for water containing 300-1200 ppm salinity. Muncipal effluent in Arizona generally has 600 to 1200 ppm salinity so this process should work well. It is particularly effective in removing dissolved organics, virus, bacteria and parasitic protozoans. The nanofilter is being used in several Florida locations. The City of Fort Myers in Florida is presently constructing the largest of these facilities, a 20 million gallon per day plant (City of Ft Myers, 1987).
    • Market-Based Operation to Improve the Efficiency of Water Supplies from the Colorado River Basin

      Harding, Benjamin L.; Payton, Elizabeth A.; Lord, William B.; Brown, Thomas C.; Rozaklis, Lee T.; WBLA, Inc., Boulder, CO; WBLA, Inc., Boulder, CO; WBLA, Inc., Boulder, CO; USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO (1988)
      Disposition of water supplies in the Colorado River Basin was simulated under several different allocation systems and two levels of demand. Under the current system of compacts and reservoir operation rules no significant shortfalls were observed at the current demand level. At future demand levels, shortages reached disruptive levels. These shortfalls principally affected the Metropolitan Water District, and their magnitude depended on assumptions regarding surplus release policies at Lake Mead. Under a system of allocation based on economic values, shortages to high-valued M&I users could be dramatically reduced at the expense of modest increases in shortfalls to lower-valued uses (primarily agriculture), but occasional severe shortages to municipal users in both basins persisted. Shortages to municipal users could be eliminated by instituting a reserve policy in mainstem reservoirs, with water purchased from low-valued uses and maintained in storage for use by high-valued uses during drought periods. This paper reports the quantification of expected relative benefits of alternative management schemes involving transfers of water within the Colorado River Basin. It builds on the results of a study of the disposition of incremental streamflow from forestry practices in the Basin (Brown, et al, in press). The paper first describes the physical and institutional setting of the Colorado River Basin. It then briefly describes the model used to analyze alternative management schemes. Then the estimated effect of management changes is described.
    • Water Harvesting in Arid Lands

      Cluff, C. Brent; Water Resources Research Center (1987-10)
      The use of water harvesting systems in arid lands offers the potential of making lands productive that are now largely unusable due to lack of water for domestic livestock or agricultural use. As long as there is rainfall a water harvesting system can be designed to collect that rainfall and store it until it can be used for beneficial use. The water harvesting system consists of a catchment and a storage facility. If the water is to be used for agriculture it would also include an agricultural area. The agricultural area could be located within the catchment area or in a separate nearby area. Many different treatments have been tested for use in catchment construction. These treatments increase the runoff by decreasing the permeability of the surface and or reducing the time the water stays on the surface or amount of water trapped on the surface. A list of the more promising treatments in order of their increasing cost, are: (1) Shaped compacted-earth; (2) sodium-treated shaped compacted-earth; (3) wax-treated shaped compacted-earth; (4) gravel-covered plastic; (5) fiberglass-asphalt chipcoated; (6) asphalt-plastic-asphalt chipcoated; (7) rubberized-asphalt chipcoated; and (8) reinforced-mortar-covered plastic. The use of compartmented reservoirs make storage of water more efficient. Evaporation and in some cases seepage losses are reduced using the compartmented reservoir by keeping the water concentrated into a volume with as small a surface area as possible. This method of storage when combined with the collection of runoff from a natural surface or with one that is inexpensively treated makes it practical to provide water for supplemental irrigation. This combination is called a water harvesting agrisystem. Concentration of water in a compartmented reservoir can be accomplished in flat terrain using a pump. If the water is being used at a fast enough rate concentration can also be accomplished by selective removal. Alternatively with topography of a sufficient grade, concentration can be accomplished by gravity. Evaporation control on the compartmented reservoir can be improved by placing an evaporation control barrier on the "last" compartment, the one in which water is concentrated and has water in it the longest time. This enhances the value of the evaporation control barrier and increases the dependable water supply. A computer model has been developed to help in the design of the water harvesting systems including agrisystems with compartmented reservoirs. This program fits on portable personal computers and can thus be taken by the designer to a field location to develop an optimum design at a minimum cost. The model can be improved through calibration in a given area as systems are installed and data collected.
    • Effects of Channel Stabilization in Tucson Stream Reaches on Infiltration and Ground-Water Recharge: Volume II Natural Streamflow Study

      Cluff, C. B.; Katz, L. T.; Scovill, G. L.; Water Resources Research Center (1987-09)
      Volume II Executive Summary: Volume I of a companion study has shown, by means of a computer model, that the use of channel stabilization with soil cement to control flood damage can reduce infiltration from natural streamflow unless the channel is widened during emplacement of the bank protection. This part of the study, Volume II, attempts to quantify the basinwide effect of channel stabilization on infiltration under the various cases studied in Volume I. It was prepared in response to Task 2 of the scope of services.
    • Additional Case Study Simulations of Dry Well Drainage in the Tucson Basin

      Bandeen, R. F.; Water Resources Research Center (1987-06)
      Executive Summary: Three case study simulations of dry well drainage were performed using the saturated-unsaturated groundwater flow model UNSAT 2. Each case simulated injection of storm water runoff water into a dry well from two five-year, one-hour storm events, separated by a 24-hour lag period. The first case assumed subsurface conditions of a uniform gravelly sand material from land surface to the water table at 100 feet below land surface. The second case assumed the same gravelly sand, underlain by a uniform sandy-clay loam material beginning at 30 feet below land surface and extending to the water table. The third case assumed the same conditions as in Case 2, except for a sandy loam soil replacing the sandy-clay loam material. Simulated subsurface flow of injection water for the first case was primarily vertical. The cross-sectional radius of the 95% saturated portion of the drainage plume reached a maximum of about nine feet during stormwater injection. In the second and third cases, horizontal flow took place at the layer boundary between the gravelly sand and underlying fine material. As a result, the cross-sectional radius of the 95% saturated portion of the drainage plume reached a maximum of about 27 feet for Case 2, and about 21.5 feet for Case 3. Arrival times of injection water at the water table varied from between 0.25 and 0.75 hours (Case 1), and between 130 and 150 hours (Case 2). Attenuation of water-borne pollutants in the vadose zone is related to the degree of exposure of drainage water to soil particle surfaces. The specific surface area of soil particles to which drainage water was exposed was used as an indicator of the relative degree of attenuation that may take place among the three cases. The ratio of specific surface area of soil matrix exposed to the portion of the subsurface reaching a state of 80% saturation was approximately 1 : 16.2 : 5.6 (Case 1 : Case 2 : Case 3).
    • Effects of Channel Stabilization in Tucson Stream Reaches on Infiltration and Ground-Water Recharge: Volume I Model Studies

      Wilson, L. G.; Neuman, S. P.; Guzman, A. G.; Leo, T. P.; Osborn, M. D.; Water Resources Research Center; Water Resources Research Center; Water Resources Research Center; Water Resources Research Center; Water Resources Research Center (1987-06)
      Volume I Executive Summary: The increase in extreme flood events in Tucson stream channels has led to the use of channel stabilization procedures to mitigate flood damage. These procedures include bank protection with soil cement, channel modification, and grade control structures. The channel stabilization and grade control structures are typically constructed to depths up to 20 ft below the channel bottom. Channel modification generally consists of widening and straightening channels in bank-protected reaches. There is concern that structural changes in the rivers will reduce infiltration and recharge during the periodic flow events. Ground-water recharge occurs when water that has infiltrated at the land surface and percolated through the vadose zone reaches the water table. The vadose zone is the partially saturated geological region between the land surface and the water table. Recognizing this concern, Pima County contracted with the Water Resources Research Center of the University of Arizona, to estimate the effect of channel modification on infiltration and recharge by undertaking computer simulations of subsurface flow during a representative runoff event in modified and unmodified channels. The purpose of a companion study, which is reported in Volume II of this report, was to estimate the effect of channel modification in localized reaches on the basin-wide recharge regimen.
    • Arizona's Solar Powered Community: Sizing and Cost Estimate of a 24-Home Prototype

      Cluff, C. Brent; Water Resources Research Center (Water Resources Research Center, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1987-05)
      Introduction: On January 12, 1987, Governor Mecham stated that he intended to build a solar powered community. A solar powered community would produce as much power from the sun as it would consume. Thus, it would be self sustaining as far as energy is concerned. One of the most cost-effective ways of powering a community appears to be the combination of using a hybrid thermal/photovoltaic collector. with seasonal storage of water in an insulated pit providing thermal energy to the homes in the community using district heating and cooling. In order to demonstrate the cost effectiveness of this system in the desert areas of southern Arizona, a project was designed and a cost was estimated for a 24-home subdivision in the Phoenix area.
    • Inventory of Sources of Available Saline Waters for Microalgae Mass Culture in the State of Arizona

      Wilson, L. G.; Olson, Kevin L.; Wallace, Mary G.; Osborn, M. D.; Water Resources Research Center; Water Resources Research Center; Water Resources Research Center; Water Resources Research Center (Water Resources Research Center, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-06-25)
      Summary: The Arizona Water Resources Research Center was contracted by the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) to conduct an inventory of saline water resources within the State of Arizona. The purpose of this inventory was to identify on the basis of availability, chemistry, sustained yield, and institutional factors, the potential saline water supplies sufficient to maintain a microalgae production facility for eventual conversion of the algal biomass to synthetic fuel. Criteria for the inventory were specified by SERI. The six subtasks associated with the project are identified on the attached flow chart. The method of investigation involved a literature and data survey and interviews with key personnel in government or quasi-official agencies. The principal data are included in the report together with a list of contacts. As a result of the survey conducted by the Water Resources Research Center, six focal areas with saline ground-water resources were identified and ranked. The report includes a summary of the selection methodology, a description of the hydrogeology of each site and a thorough discussion of relevant institutional considerations, including permitting requirements under current ground-water associated laws in Arizona. Detailed maps are included of the saline surface water and ground-water sources. Recommendations are included for further evaluation by SERI of areas potentially suitable for a project.
    • Designing an Effective and Acceptable Water Conservation Plan

      Teinert, Carl A.; Water Resources Association, Inc., Austin, Texas; WBLA, Inc., Boulder, Colorado (1986-02)
      To be effective, your plan must understand your utility's future water demand and water supply in order to identify problems and bring each into balance. To work, your plan must be acceptable to city council members and consumers.
    • Water Conservation: An Essential Tool for Municipalities

      Tinert, Carl A.; Lord, William B.; Water Resources Associates, Inc., Austin, Texas; WBLA, Inc., Boulder, Colorado (1986-01)
      The definition of 'water conservation' places the emphasis upon saving water rather than developing it.
    • Water Harvesting Agrisystems Using Compartmented Reservoirs

      Cluff, C. Brent; Water Resources Research Center (1985-11)
      The use of compartmented reservoirs make storage of water for water harvesting agrisystems more efficient. Evaporation and in some cases seepage losses are reduced using the compartmented reservoir by keeping the water concentrated into as small a surface area as possible. The compartmented reservoir can be used to store excess runoff water and provide supplemental irrigation for rainfed agriculture. A conventional reservoir can be retrofitted into a compartmented reservoir at the time of cleaning by building earthern embankments either in the reservoir or adding compartments outside. Experience in Brazil has shown that a compartmented reservoir can be built for 20 percent less cost than the typical reservoir in flat terrain. The reason for this is that intermediate embankments needed to form the compartmented reservoir provide a place to deposit excavated material. This provides a place to deposit the excavated material and reduces the distance that earthmoving equipment need to move the material. Concentration of water in a compartmented reservoir can be accomplished in flat terrain using a pump. If the water is being used at a fast enough rate concentration can also be accomplished by selective removal. Alternatively with topography of a sufficient grade, concentration can be accomplished by gravity. Excess runoff water from planted areas can be stored in compartmented reservoirs until needed for supplemental irrigation of the crop. Moisture available for the crop and excess runoff can be increased by means of strip farms. The land is cleared and shaped so that runoff from a fallow strip can be directed to the planted strip of crop with the excess going into storage for later use. Runoff can also be stored from treated or untreated natural watersheds that are not cropped. A computer model has been developed to help in the design of the water harvesting agrisystems with compartmented reservoirs. This program fits on portable personal computers and can thus be taken by the designer to a field location to develop an optimum design at a minimum cost. The model can be improved through calibration in a given area as systems are installed and data collected.
    • Prediction of Runoff Volumes in Butler Valley, Arizona

      Karnieli, Arnon,1952-; Water Resources Research Center (Water Resources Research Center, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1985-10)
      An empirical-stochastical model for predicting runoff volumes in Butler Valley, Arizona, has been suggested. The model uses the statistical parameters of rainfall in a few surrounding stations in order to calculate the recurrence interval of rainfall above the study area. The model also considers the elevation effect of the mountains. The model assumes a linear relationships between annual rainfall and annual runoff for a given watershed taking into account the reduction in runoff efficiency with an increase in catchment size. A procedural approach and an example for using the model are presented.
    • El Obeid Water Supply/Water Harvesting Potential in Western Sudan: Report to Western Sudan Agricultural Research Project, Washington State University, College of Agriculture & Home Economics

      Cluff, C. Brent; Water Resources Research Center (Water Resources Research Center, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1985-10)
      Introduction: A trip was taken from July 3 to July 17, 1985 to Sudan to study the El Obeid compartmented reservoir system. This system supplies most of the domestic water for the city of El Obeid which has a population of 200,000 to 250,000 people. This water supply was exhausted in March of 1985 and the town was out of water until the monsoon rains began July 2, 1985. Approximately one week was spent in El Obeid and Kadugli. The remainder of the time was spent in Khartoum where the IBM PC was used. Some time was also spent in Khartoum in obtaining flattened ceramic spheres for evaporation control.
    • A Report to the Central Arizona Water Conservation District...on Geophysical Investigations of Butler Valley, Arizona

      Dietz, David; Williams, Charles; Marsh, Floyd; Marsh, Floyd; Department of Geosciences; Department of Geosciences; Water Resources Research Center (University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1985-01)
      Summary: Recent (1984) geophysical investigations of Butler Valley, Arizona, included gravity and seismic refraction surveys to estimate depth to and describe general configuration of bedrock underlying the basin outlet at the narrows into the Ranegras Plain. Interpretation and correlation of geophysical data collected from these surveys indicates a depth to bedrock at the basin outlet ranging from about 55 to 90 feet along a profile between bedrock outcrops, a distance of approximately 3,800 feet (see Figure 3, Profile A -A'). Such a bedrock configuration appears favorable to closing the lower end of the basin to eliminate possible ground-water underflow into the Ranegras Plain, using different engineering or management techniques. In addition, these data were correlated with available data from previous gravity surveys and geologic well logs to produce three other cross-basin profiles, which together were used to develop a generalized depth to bedrock map of the entire Valley (see Figure 7). Geophysical information presented in this report can be used to estimate alluvial thickness, define storage volume and boundaries of the aquifer and describe configuration of the shallow bedrock saddle beneath the narrows of the Valley. This information is useful in developing and evaluating technical or management solutions to eliminate potential ground-water outflow from the basin.
    • Recharge Potential of Southwest Alluvial Basins in Proximity to the Central Arizona Project Aqueduct

      Marsh, Floyd L.; Water Resources Research Center (Water Resources Research Center, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1984-09)
      Introduction: Southwest desert alluvial basins seemingly offer significant potential for efficient subsurface storage of artificially-recharged water and conjunctive management of limited water resources. This report presents a preliminary assessment of five southwest alluvial basins in general proximity to the Central Arizona Project (CAP) aqueduct system. Each of these basins is typical of the Southwest Basin and Range Physiographic Province, which is characterized by broad, deep alluvial-filled basins bounded by steep, rugged fault-block mountain ranges. Further, these basins are categorized into either West or Central Basins on the basis of common lithologic, stratigraphic and hydrogeologic properties (Pool, 1984). Geography, hydrogeology, surface soils, water sources and land-ownership patterns of each basin are described relative to the potential of ground-water recharge.