• Brackish Water as a Factor in Development of the Safford Valley, Arizona, U.S.A.

      Resnick, Sol D.; DeCook, K. J.; Water Resources Research Center, University of Arizona; Water Resources Research Center, University of Arizona (1975-01)
      Introduction: The Safford Valley area lies along the Gila River in the southeastern part of the State of Arizona. The portion of the valley being considered, see Figure 1, is an intermontane trough averaging about 15 miles (24.2 kilometers) in width and about 30 miles (48.3 kilometers) in length. The cultivated lands lie along the Gila River and are 0.5 to 3.5 miles (0.8 to 5.6 kilometers) from the river. The approximately 14,000 inhabitants of the valley are primarily located in the municipalities, and Safford, the largest of the towns, was founded in 1875. Agriculture and agriculture-dependent activities, however, provide the mainstay of the Safford Valley economy accounting for approximately 63 percent of the export employment (State of Arizona, 1971). Like many valleys in arid regions, the Safford Valley, because of an inadequate supply of good quality water, has been forced to depend on ground water of notoriously poor quality. The purpose of this paper is to show how the limitation of available good quality water and the need to use brackish water affects agricultural practices and industrial development in the Safford Valley.
    • Report of Water Loss Investigation West Lake, El Dorado Country Club, Tucson, Arizona

      Boyer, D. G.; Cluff, C. B.; Water Resources Research Center, University of Arizona; Water Resources Research Center, University of Arizona (1971-01)
      Introduction: The University of Arizona Water Resources Research Center measured the water loss in a small, artificial lake over a period of 25 days in the fall of 1970. During construction, this man -make lake had been treated with a bio-chemical enzymatic product to retard seepage. The investigation began shortly after the initial filling and included the measurement of water loss, rainfall and evaporation.
    • Quality Transformations in Recharged River Water During Possible Interactions with Landfill Deposits Along the Santa Cruz River: Annual Report, Phase 2, 1973-1974

      Wilson, L. G.; Herbert, Richard; Ramsey, Chris; Randall, J. H.; Water Resources Research Center, University of Arizona; Water Resources Research Center, University of Arizona; Water Resources Research Center, University of Arizona; Water Resources Research Center, University of Arizona (Water Resources Research Center, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1974-08-08)
      The overall objectives of a study initiated in 1972 by the Water Resources Research Center (Univ. of Arizona), in cooperation with the Pima County Dept. of Sanitation, are to examine the possibility of interactions between recharged river water and deposits in adjoining landfills, and if such interactions occur to evaluate the effect on native groundwater quality. Corresponding to these objectives, the principal function of a monitoring program initiated during the project was to characterize background water levels and native groundwater quality during normal low flows (i.e., sewage flows) in the river, and to monitor changes, if such occur, during flood flows. As it turns out, data from the project should also be applicable to the anticipated irrigation of farmland near Marana, using effluent from the Impending Ina Rd Treatment Facility. In particular, clues will be provided on transformations in sewage effluent quality during infiltration and deep percolation. The first phase of the project was conducted at the Ina Rd landfill and the second involved both the Ina Rd and Ruthrauff Rd fills. Results of the first phase were reported in a paper by Wilson and Small. This report will review the results of the second study phase. Specific objectives of the studies during the second phase included (1) obtaining river water and well water samples for chemical and microbiological analysis, (2) monitoring water level changes in available wells and (3) characterizing general features of the geohydrology in the vicinity of the landfills.
    • Coolidge Regional Park Project Progress Report No. 2

      Herbert, Richard A. (University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1974)
    • Modeling of Hydrologic Processes and Water Salvage Procedures in Semiarid Regions

      Resnick, S. D.; Water Resources Research Center, University of Arizona (Water Resources Research Center, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1973-12)
      Potential uses or reuses of salvageable waters in the Tucson region were examined, and costs and benefits related to such uses were evaluated. The quality of salvageable waters as determined in exploratory sampling was compared with water quality standards and criteria appropriate for agricultural, recreational and selected industrial uses. A tableau was then constructed which showed the type and estimated cost of conventional water treatment that would be required for each source-to-use combination. Finally, an estimate was made of unit net benefits to be anticipated from salvageable water input to these uses, and the net benefits were applied in several test calculations to illustrate mixed allocations of the various salvaged waters to the selected uses.
    • Alternative Uses of Treated Wastewater in Arizona

      DeCook, K. James; Water Resources Research Center, University of Arizona (1974-05)
      Introduction: In the wake of renewed concern in recent years about environmental quality and its preservation, much has been said about the apparent conflict between environmental quality and economic development. In many instances these two objectives would seem to be in direct opposition to one another; in fact, as indicated by Cleary (1972), pollution in times past was accepted as the inevitable penalty of progress, as measured by economic growth. Currently, however, a popular view is that pollution is not socially acceptable and must be eliminated (the "zero-discharge" concept), almost without regard to economic considerations. While we are attempting to achieve a state of balance between these two approaches, it is evident that some activities can be so directed as to serve both objectives -- pollution control and the economic utilization of a resource. An example is the allocation of treated municipal wastewaters to beneficial uses, such that their environmental pollution potential is decreased, while they simultaneously serve as an input to an economically productive process or water-use activity.
    • Potential of Wastewater for Commercial Barley Production

      Day, A. D.; McFadyen, J. A.; Tucker, T. C.; Cluff, C. B.; Department of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona; Department of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona; Department of Soils, Water, and Engineering, University of Arizona; Water Resources Research Center, University of Arizona (2014-03-21)
      Experiments were conducted in southern Arizona to investigate the effects of irrigation with pump water and a pump water-wastewater mixture on barley (Hordium vulgare L.) growth, grain yield, and grain quality; soil properties; and irrigation water quality. In 1974 and 1975, on small plot research, barley irrigated with a 50:50 mixture of pump water and wastewater significantly exceeded barley irrigated with pump water alone in plant height, number of heads per unit area, number of seeds per head, seed weight, grain yield, and straw yield. In large field studies conducted from 1970 through 1977, barley irrigated with the mixture had taller plants, more lodging, lower grain volume-weights and higher grain yields than barley irrigated with pump water alone. Soils irrigated with both types of irrigation water had similar pH. Soluble salts (ECx103), exchangeable sodium percentage, nitrate-nitrogen, and extractable phosphorus were significantly higher in soils irrigated with the pump water-wastewater mixture than in soils irrigated with pump water. Water quality analyses showed that the pump water-wastewater mixture had lower total soluble salts, lower nitrate-nitrogen, and higher phosphorus levels than pump water alone.
    • The Use of the Compartmented Reservoir in Water Harvesting Agrisystems

      Cluff, C. Brent; Water Resources Research Center, University of Arizona (International Center for Arid and Semi-Arid Land Studies, Texas Tech University, 1979-07)
      Runoff farming under most climatic conditions and soil types requires some type of efficient surface water storage in order to maintain production during dry years. The combination of a treated catchment feeding runoff water to a planted area coupled with surface storage is defined as a water harvesting agrisystem. Surface storage in order to be efficient requires evaporation control and in most cases seepage control. Various methods are available for economical seepage control but the cost of the currently used evaporation control methods are high enough to preclude their use for growing conventional crops using water harvesting agrisystems. A promising solution is the use of the compartmented reservoir to reduce evaporation loss. This method utilizes systematic pumping and removal of water from storage to keep water concentrated in the smallest number of compartments built within the typical shallow reservoir. The paper discusses the construction and design of several of these systems. It describes the use of the Compartmented Reservoir Optimization Program (CROP-76) developed in 1976 and improved in 1978 (CROP-78).
    • Commercial Production of Wheat Grain Irrigated with Municipal Wastewater

      Day, A. D.; McFadyen, J. A.; Tucker, T. C.; Cluff, C. B.; Department of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona; Department of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona; Department of Soils, Water, and Engineering, University of Arizona; Water Resources Research Center, University of Arizona
      Experiments were conducted in southern Arizona to study the effects of irrigating wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with a mixture of pump water and wastewater and pump water alone on wheat growth, grain yield, grain quality, soil properties, and irrigation water quality. In small plot research, wheat irrigated with a mixture of pump water and wastewater produced taller plants, more heads per unit area, heavier seeds, higher grain yields, and higher straw yields than did wheat grown with only pump water. When large fields were compared, wheat grown with a mixture of pump water and wastewater had taller plants, more lodging, lower grain volume-weights, and higher grain yields than did wheat produced with pump water. The pH and exchangeable sodium of soil irrigated with pump water alone or a mixture of pump water and wastewater were similar. Electricalconductivity and nitrate-nitrogen were higher in soils irrigated with pump water than they were in soils irrigated with a mixture of pump water and wastewater. Extractable phosphorus was higher in soils irrigated with a mixture of pump water and wastewater than in soils irrigated with pump water. Total soluble salts and nitrate-nitrogen were higher in pump water than they were in the pump water and wastewater mixture; however, the pump water and wastewater mixture had a higher level of phosphorus than did pump water.
    • High Capacity Greywater Reuse System

      Cluff, C. Brent; Water Resources Research Center (Water Resources Research Center, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1984-07-03)
      Introduction: Due to the increasing need of reducing utility costs there is a growing interest in reusing "greywater" in landscape irrigation. Greywater is the return water flow of washers, bathtubs, showers and lavatory sinks. Wastewater from the toilets and kitchen sinks are excluded from greywater. Thus greywater does not have a very high organic loading and requires little or no treatment before it can be used for garden and landscape irrigation. The reuse of greywater greatly reduces the water needs of a family. It also reduces the energy required to pump and pressurize the lines that deliver the water. Perhaps even more significantly greywater reuse reduces the capacity needed in both the sewer lines and sewer treatment plants. The use of greywater instead of a diminishing groundwater resource reduces the guilt factor of those who enjoy having some shade, lawn and vegetables even though they are living in a arid environment.
    • Midland and O'Bannon Water Cylinder Pump Test

      Cluff, C. B.; Christensen, H. D.; Noodleman, S.; Latas, J. L.; Branch, W. P. (Water Resources Research Center, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1983-02)
    • Grey-Water Reuse: Appropriate for the American Southwest

      Popkin, Barney P.; Water Resources Research Center (1979-04)
    • Guidance Manual for Landfill Siting in Arizona: A Report Prepared for the Arizona Department of Health Services, Bureau of Water Quality Control

      Wilson, L. G.; Water Resources Research Center (Water Resources Research Center, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1980-10-15)
    • Alternative Use Plan for City of Tucson Land, Avra Valley, Arizona

      Karpiscak, Martin M.; Foster, Kennith E.; Cluff, C. Brent; DeCook, K. James; Matter, Fred; Office of Arid Lands Studies; Office of Arid Lands Studies; Water Resources Research Center; Water Resources Research Center; College of Architecture (University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1981-09)
    • Water Balance Study in the Upper Aravaipa Watershed, Arizona (Project Report)

      Arad, Arnon; Adar, Eilon; Water Resources Research Center; Water Resources Research Center (Water Resources Research Center, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1981-09)
    • A Five-Year Plan for Water Resources Research in Arizona

      Water Resources Research Center. University of Arizona. (Water Resources Research Center, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1980-10)
    • Asphalt-Crumb Rubber Waterproofing Membrane

      Frobel, Ronald K.; Jimenez, R. A.; Cluff, C. Brent; Morris, Gene R.; Water Resources Research Center, University of Arizona; Civil Engineering Department, University of Arizona; Water Resources Research Center, University of Arizona; Arizona Department of Transportation (2014-03-19)
      This report is concerned with laboratory testing and field investigations of a water seepage barrier consisting of asphalt cement and reclaimed crumb-rubber tire peel. The test methods that were utilized and evaluated included the following: water vapor transmission (ASTM E96 -72, Procedure BW), water absorption (ASTM 570-72), ductility (ASTM D113-74), viscosity, toughness, and brittleness /impact resistance (ASTM 0994-72). The test results showed that the asphalt-rubber as a membrane is relatively impermeable and absorbs an insignificant amount of water. The crumb rubber effectively increases the viscosity of the asphalt cement while decreasing the ductility value. The asphalt-rubber combination exhibits a tough, impact resistant membrane with excellent waterproofing properties.
    • Water Harvesting Catchment and Reservoir Construction Methods

      Cluff, C. Brent; Frobel, R. K.; Water Resources Research Center; Water Resources Research Center (Water Resources Research Center, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1978-04)