• Case Study Simulations of Dry Well Drainage in the Tucson Basin

      Bandeen, Reid F.; Water Resources Research Center (Water Resources Research Center, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1984-09)
    • Development of a Primer on Well Water Sampling for Volatile Organic Substances

      Wilson, L. Graham; Dworkin, Judith M.; Water Resources Research Center; Department of Hydrology and Water Resources (University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1984-09)
      With the growing problem of ground water contamination by volatile organic substances, drinking water sampling programs are being initiated throughout the United States. A need was recognized for a manual on well water sampling that would bridge the gap between highly technical documents and over -simplified reviews. A primer was therefore developed on establishing and implementing a sampling program. Current information was collected by means of both library research and extensive contact with public agency employees and practicing hydrologists. Portions of a sampling program that required explanation included selection of priority wells, proper sampling at the well head, sample preservation and shipment, chain of custody procedures, laboratory selection, quality assurance and data evaluation. Explanation of these steps is intended to help ensure the legal defensibility of any collected data.
    • Trickle Irrigation Greywater Reuse System

      Cluff, C. Brent; Water Resources Research Center (Water Resources Research Center, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1984-07-03)
      This paper describes a greywater reuse system suitable for trickle irrigation. The system has a self cleaning sand filter with approximately 700 gallon total storage capacity. The system also has a delayed off-peak release to the sewer whenever the greywater is not needed for irrigation. Thus in addition to reducing water bills it would qualify for a 50% reduction in sewer charges. The paper shows how a greywater reuse system would be a very good investment particularly for the larger families. If a large number of Tucsonians converted to the use of a greywater reuse system it would significantly reduce the daily drain on their underground water supplies.
    • High Capacity Greywater Reuse System

      Cluff, C. Brent; Water Resources Research Center (Water Resources Research Center, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1984-07-03)
      Introduction: Due to the increasing need of reducing utility costs there is a growing interest in reusing "greywater" in landscape irrigation. Greywater is the return water flow of washers, bathtubs, showers and lavatory sinks. Wastewater from the toilets and kitchen sinks are excluded from greywater. Thus greywater does not have a very high organic loading and requires little or no treatment before it can be used for garden and landscape irrigation. The reuse of greywater greatly reduces the water needs of a family. It also reduces the energy required to pump and pressurize the lines that deliver the water. Perhaps even more significantly greywater reuse reduces the capacity needed in both the sewer lines and sewer treatment plants. The use of greywater instead of a diminishing groundwater resource reduces the guilt factor of those who enjoy having some shade, lawn and vegetables even though they are living in a arid environment.
    • Urban Water Harvesting System, Tucson, Arizona

      Cluff, C. Brent; Water Resources Research Center (1984-06)
      A urban water harvesting system in Tucson, Arizona is described. The system consists of a 100,000 gallon reservoir fed through a 6-inch pipe by a 4-acre urban watershed. In addition a 3-acre watershed is connected to the pond with both a earth lined and fibreglass reinforced asphalt channel. The 3-acre watershed includes the acre lot on which the reservoir is located. A gutter collects the runoff from the house on this lot and directs it into the pond. The front driveway is paved and directly connected to the pond so that a high percentage of its rainfall is harvested. The reservoir is multipurpose providing irrigation for a large (4000 sq. ft.) garden and orchard area in addition to landscape irrigation. Also in the future the reservoir will provide sufficient water to take care of the flushing of toilets for a family of 8. The reservoir also is used for the raising of fish thus providing both food and recreation. Trout is raised in the winter and tilapia in the summer. The pond also provides swimming, rafting and aesthetic enjoyment in an arid environment. The cost effectiveness of the reservoir is high primarily because of the high watershed area to capacity ratio. With a relatively high demand the reservoir refills several times each year. Only a small percentage of the rainfall on the watershed is utilized because of the relatively small storage capacity of the reservoir. This percentage of utilization is estimated to be about 15 percent.
    • Review of the Tucson Water Department's Analysis of the CAP/Floodwater Recharge Alternative

      Cluff, C. Brent; Water Resources Research Center (Water Resources Research Center, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1984-03-16)
    • Constraints and Categories of Vadose Zone Monitoring Devices

      Everett, Lorne G.; Hoylman, Edward W.; Wilson, L. Graham; McMillion, Leslie G.; Kaman Tempo, Natural Resources Program; Kaman Tempo, Natural Resources Program; Water Resources Research Center; U.S. EPA, Environmental Monitoring Systems Lab, Las Vegas, NV (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1984-03)
      Traditional monitoring methods using chemical analysis of ground water samples to detect pollutant migration are being superseded or used in conjunction with innovative approaches. A need to detect pollutants before they reach the water table has drawn interest to vadose (unsaturated) zone monitoring and brought together hydrogeologists, soil scientists and agricultural engineers who have been working on this subject for years. Recent studies have identified over 50 different types of vadose zone monitoring devices and methods that have optimum utility in varying hydrogeologic settings. In general, measurements made in the vadose zone are trying to define storage, transmission of liquid waste in terms of flux and velocity, and pollutant mobility. Criteria for the selection of alternative vadose zone monitoring methods are important for the development of site-specific systems. These criteria include: type of site; applicability to new, active, and abandoned sites; power requirements; depth limitations; multiple use capability; type of data collection system; reliability and life expectancy; degree of operational complexity; direct versus indirect methods; applicability to alternate media; effect on flow regime; and effect of hazardous waste on sampling or measurements. Application of the selection criteria is discussed in Everett et al. (1982a).
    • Estimation of Recharge in a Small Southern Arizona Basin by Means of Hydrological, Hydrochemical, and Environmental Isotope Data

      Neuman, Shlomo P.; Adar, Eilon; University of Arizona; University of Arizona (University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1983-12)
    • CAP/Floodwater Recharge Alternative

      Cluff, C. Brent; Water Resources Research Center (Water Resources Research Center, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1983-11)
    • Seepage and Evaporation Determination Using a Liquid Level Interferometer (Laser)

      Cluff, C. Brent; Jacobs, Stephen F.; Neuberger, Steven; Tasso, Eric M.; Kartchner, Kevin K.; Water Resources Research Center; Optical Sciences Center (University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1983-09-01)
      A liquid level interferometer has been built to measure changes in water level to an accuracy of /8. A novel magnetic suspension is used to position the floating retroreflector of a laser interferometer. Direction sensing is achieved by dual optical channels phased near quadrature by means of an absorbing beamsplitter. The interferometer (laser) has been used to measure very accurately the drop in water level of a lined reservoir. The drop in water level thus provides a precise method of measuring evaporation. It was found that this drop in water level essentially ceased when the relative humidity approached very closely or equaled 100 percent during early morning calm periods. This provides a method of determination of seepage loss. In an unlined reservoir during calm periods when the relative humidity is 100 percent any remaining drop in water level is due to seepage. The laser can measure this rate.
    • A Case Study of Dry Well Recharge

      Wilson, L. Graham; Water Resources Research Center (Water Resources Research Center, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1983-09)
    • Monitoring in the Vadose Zone: Part III

      Wilson, L. G.; Water Resources Research Center (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1983-03)
      Methods for detecting pollutant movement are discussed in this final installment of a three-part series.
    • Hydrological and Environmental Controls on Water Management in Semiarid Urban Areas -- Phase II

      Resnick, Sol D.; DeCook, K. James; Phillips, Robert A.; Water Resources Research Center; Water Resources Research Center; Department of Civil Engineering (Water Resources Research Center, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1983-03)
      Rainfall and runoff studies initiated by the University of Arizona provide data for three small urban watersheds from 1968 and one rural watershed from 1957 to 1969. These watersheds typify various land use patterns in Tucson, Arizona. Annual precipitation of about 11 inches produces annual runoff, as measured at outflow flumes, ranging from 0.44 inches in depth for the rural watershed and 1.10 to 2.10 inches for the urban watersheds. The runoff is produced by as few as 5 runoff events per year in the rural watershed and 16 to 22 events per year for the urban watersheds. About 60 percent of the rural and 50 to 58 percent of the urban annual runoff events occur in the summer season, as does 55 to 65 percent of the annual volume of measured runoff for both. There is about a four to five-fold increase in average yearly storm runoff volume with urbanization in the Tucson area. Water samples collected on a lumped basis show generally high concentrations of suspended sediment, bacterial loading, and dissolved organics. Initial field treatment and exploratory laboratory studies of treatment methods indicate that three days is an optimal length of time for detention storage of storm runoff, reducing average pollutant concentrations to 62 mg/1 of turbidity, total coliform of 70-3,200 organisms per 100 ml, and 7 mg/1 of chemical oxygen demand. Simple laboratory treatment with alum and polyelectrolyte yielded an 80 percent reduction in COD, 90 percent reduction in bacterial loading, and appreciable clarification of the runoff samples. Multi-purpose urban storm runoff management systems can be developed to control floods while at the same time maintaining water-based linear parks along minor stream channels in semiarid regions. Multi-purpose systems are more economical than the single-purpose systems required to accomplish the same purposes. Further studies are needed to characterize the quality of storm runoff from selected urban land use areas with a view toward on-site control and disposal.
    • Midland and O'Bannon Water Cylinder Pump Test

      Cluff, C. B.; Christensen, H. D.; Noodleman, S.; Latas, J. L.; Branch, W. P. (Water Resources Research Center, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1983-02)
    • Developing a New Deconvolution Technique to Model Rainfall-Runoff in Arid Environments

      Neuman, S. P.; Resnick, S. D.; Reebles, R. W.; Dunbar, David B.; Department of Hydrology and Water Resources; Water Resources Research Center; Water Resources Research Center; Department of Hydrology and Water Resources (Water Resources Research Center, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1982-09)
      The primary accomplishment of this research has been demonstrating the power of the deconvolution technique developed by Neuman and de Marsily (1976) in dealing with noisy rainfall- runoff records of short duration. Such records are encountered in arid environments where rainfall often occurs in short isolated bursts and the data are measured with a considerable margin of error. Our research work consisted of superimposing known noise on synthetic rainfall- runoff data and examining the ability of the Neuman -de Marsily deconvolution method to estimate the correct impulse response of the system when the data include only a single storm event. Approximately 50 Monte Carlo simulation runs were performed for each of three different noise models considered in our work. The results clearly demonstrated that the deconvolution model leads to reliable estimates and can be used with confidence in the presence of realistic noise levels. In addition to the Monte Carlo simulation tests and their analysis, certain improvements were introduced into the original deconvolution technique. In particular, the original version of the technique required that the hydrologist exercise subjective judgement in choosing the "best" solution for the deconvolution problem from a large number of admissible solutions. Our new method of selecting the "best" result is based on a comparative analysis of residuals and is more reliable than the earlier subjective approach. The improved method has been applied to real as well as synthetic rainfall -runoff data.
    • Bibliography on Ground-Water Recharge in Arid and Semiarid Areas: Project Completion Report

      Keith, Susan J.; Paylore, Patricia; DeCook, K. J.; Wilson, L. G.; University of Arizona; University of Arizona; University of Arizona; University of Arizona (University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1982-07)
      This bibliography provides references on natural and man-caused recharge in arid and semiarid areas. The literature on natural recharge includes citations on stream channel recharge, mountain recharge, mountain -front recharge and precipitation-infiltration recharge. The literature on man-caused recharge includes citations on recharge from activities such as irrigation, mining and waste-water treatment and disposal, but does not include citations on artificial recharge. Most citations are abstracted; all are keyworded. The bibliography may be accessed through keyword and author indices.
    • Intermediate Photovoltaic Concentrator Systems

      Cluff, C. Brent; Call, Reginald L.; Water Resources Research Center; Electrical Engineering (1982-06)
      A 53.5 sq m (576 sq ft) 3,000 Wp second generation intermediate concentrator system has been constructed using funds provided by the U.S. Department of Energy concentrates approximately 4.5x -suns on Motorola's lx-sun, 33.0 cm (13 in) wide panels. The panels are actively cooled by circulating water from the shallow pool on which the collector floats. Azimuth tracking, made possible by the water bearing, is used.The lightweight collector can float on as little as 2.5 to 5 cm (1 to 2 in) of water. The segmented parabolas are cut out of blocks of expanded polystyrene with a hot wire. The width of each mirror segment is selected so as to reflect a full beam of light across the receiver. By using a laser for mirror alignment, optimum concentration is achieved . The use of the laser alignment makes it possible to build larger parabolas with widths of 6m (20 feet) or more. Collector and /or photovoltaic panel widths can be varied to achieve any desired concentration up to about 20x -suns.For the lower latitudes the use of large floating modules tracked in an azimuth mode continues to look intriguing. For the high latitudes narrower collector widths can be used and tracked in the more conventional altitude tracking mode. In the 2 to 10x-sun range terrestrial (lx-sun) photovoltaic panels appear to be the most cost effective, particularly in the smaller system sizes. The use of 10 to 20x sun concentrator cells with low-cost methods of mounting, look promising for large photovoltaic systems. The above concentrator systems are actively cooled, which increases cell efficiency and /or rakes it possible to sell low temperature thermal energy, which further improves the economics of the system. The thermal energy can be stored in the water on which the collector floats.
    • Water Quality Impacts and Flood Control Protection for Alignments in Aviation Corridor

      Maddock, T., Jr.; DeCook, K. J.; Resnick, S. D.; Wilson, L. G.; Taylor, M. F.; Hydrology and Water Resources Administration; Water Resources Research Center; Water Resources Research Center; Water Resources Research Center; Water Resources Research Center (University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1982-05-10)
      Introduction: The City of Tucson long-range transportation plan, as adopted in January 1981, called for the construction of a new, six-lane controlled-access "parkway" in the Aviation Corridor, and also identified this area as a possible location for one segment of the recommended regional express transit system. The Aviation Corridor Study is being conducted by the Finical and Dombrowski /Barton- Aschman Associates, Inc., and the University of Arizona Water Resources Research Center (WRRC) has undertaken a data review, field reconnaissance, and preliminary evaluation of potential hydrologic impacts of the proposed project.
    • Monitoring in the Vadose Zone: Part II

      Wilson, L. G.; Water Resources Research Center (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1982-03)
      In this section of a three-part article, the author discusses methods for characterizing the transmission of liquid wastes in the vadose zone.
    • Water Harvesting Systems for Retired Farmland, Avra Valley

      Cluff, C. Brent; Water Resources Research Center (1981-10)
      Water harvesting is defined as the creation of artificial catchments and reservoirs for the collection and storage of rainfall for beneficial purposes. These purposes can range from livestock use, recreation, domestic and industrial, as well as agricultural. The precipitation in the Avra Valley floor averages from 250 mm (10 in.) to 300 mm (12 in.). This is equivalent to 270,000 gallons to 325,000 gallons per acre per year. At domestic water prices of $2.00/1,000 gallons this is a harvestable product worth $540 to $650 /acre /year.