• The Plant Collecting Brandegees, with Emphasis on Katharine Brandegee as a Liberated Woman Scientist of Early California

      Crosswhite, Frank S.; Crosswhite, Carol D.; Boyce Thompson Southwestern Arboretum (University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1985)
    • Plant Geography of Southwestern Sand Dunes

      Bowers, Janice E. (University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1984)
      Patterns of plant distribution among eight dune fields in the southwestern USA and northwestern Mexico are analyzed and discussed. Each dune flora is characterized by three to five geographic components; the regional flora in which each dune field occurs is the dominant component. Endemic species, that is, species restricted to sand dunes, comprise ten percent or more of five of the eight floras. All possible combinations of the eight dune floras taken two at a time (28 pairs) were analyzed using Sorensen's similarity index. Only seven have a similarity value of 0.200 or greater. The lack of similarity among dune floras is due in part to their distribution among four floristically distinct biogeographic provinces and in part to localized recruitment of species from adjacent, non -dune plant communities. Geographic, edaphic and temporal barriers to dispersal and establishment also promote high dissimilarity among the eight floras. Eighty -three of the 533 species composing the eight dune floras are either endemic to sand dunes or occur at three or more of the dune fields studied. These 83 species fall into two subgroups: a group of 36 species characteristic of southwestern sand dunes east of 113° Longitude, and a group of 57 species characteristic of sand dunes west of 113° Longitude. Ten species are common to both groups. In the Southwest, dune fields are habitat islands, but dune floras do not behave in all respects as predicted by the MacArthur and Wilson theory of island biogeography. Southwestern sand dunes are not now floristic islands, but additional insular characteristics may develop over time.
    • Plants Found Along the Effluent Dominated Stretch of the Middle Santa Cruz River

      Gormally, Josh (University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2011-06)
    • Pollen Harvest by Sonoran Desert Honey Bees: Conservation Implications for Native Bees and Flowering Plants

      Buchmann, Steven L.; Shipman, Charles W.; USDA-ARS Carl Hayden Bee Research Center; Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum (University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1996-06)
      Managed and feral honey bee colonies (Apis mellifera) harvest immense quantities of nectar and pollen within kilometers of their nests whether they live in relatively undisturbed or agricultural habitats. Within the Sonoran Desert of southern Arizona, pollen collection by European honey bee colonies was monitored by the use of apicultural pollen traps. Managed colonies near Tucson, Arizona routinely collected from 20 to 50 kg of pollen each year. Flowering pulses (phenology) in the local flora was closely tracked by the colonies, and pollen influx into their nests usually occurred as three to four distinct seasonal peaks, although some pollen was actively harvested during 48 or more weeks every year. The range of flowers visited for pollen by the honey bee is likely the most diverse for any social or solitary bee yet studied, largely due to their massive food requirements, efficient scouting and recruitment to ephemeral flower patches, and persistence of their colonies as perennial units for many years. At most Sonoran Desert sites, honey bee colonies took pollen from at least 12 and as many as 40-50 dominant angiosperm taxa. Additionally, pollen diet breadth of feral honey bee colonies was determined microscopically from blackened below-nest refuse deposits known as bee middens. One such deposit from the Arizona-Mexico borderlands is thought to represent more than a half century of accumulated materials. Honey bees are dominant invertebrate herbivores in desert regions taking pollen and nectar in massive amounts from at least 25 percent of the local flora. Had this pollen remained on its host plants, it would have been available for transport by co-adapted insect, bird and bat pollinators which are often better at depositing viable pollen, effecting subsequent fertilization, fruit and seed set on native flowering plants. Sonoran Desert bees are predominantly specialist feeders and depend upon certain plants more than honey bees which can switch hosts at will and have a highly mixed diet. Thus, in direct competition with these alien social bees living in large colonies, native desert bees are often at a disadvantage in acquiring pollen and producing replacement offspring. Desert flowering plants, especially rare, threatened and endangered species are also adversely affected since honey bees remove most of the pollen and often are responsible for setting fewer seeds or dispersing pollen at different distances than their original pollinators once did.
    • Prehistoric Cultivation in Southern Arizona

      Fish, Suzanne K.; Fish, Paul R.; Miksicek, Charles; Madsen, John; Arizona State Museum; Office of Arid Lands Studies, University of Arizona (University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1985)
      Gathering of wild agave for food and fiber is widely recognized in ethnographic accounts of Southwestern Indians. Historically documented cultivation is limited to small-scale plantings and has not established agave as a significant aboriginal cultigen. The apparent absence of agave as a cultivated staple among peoples of the Sonoran Desert contrasts with pre-Columbian and historic ubiquity of this crop further south. It is a major cultigen throughout the rest of highland Mexico, including areas in Durango and Zacatecas, often considered within the greater Southwestern cultural sphere. Current archaeological evidence suggests that agave figured more prominently in prehistoric Southwestern agriculture than in that of subsequent groups.
    • Preliminary Evaluation of Cold-hardiness in Desert Landscaping Plants at Central Arizona College

      Kinnison, William A.; Central Arizona College (University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1979-08)
    • Preliminary Findings of the Southwest Monarch Study

      Kline, C. L.; Boyce Thompson Southwestern Arboretum (University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2007-06)
    • A Preliminary Theory for an Approach to Planning Environmentally Balanced Desert Landscaping

      Crosswhite, Frank S.; Crosswhite, Carol D.; Boyce Thompson Southwestern Arboretum (University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1988)
    • Preservation of Genetic Diversity

      University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1982-06
    • Propagation Techniques for Desert Plants

      Newland, Kent C.; Ives, Sarah; Joseph, Gene E.; Dimmitt, Mark A.; Mittleman, Marc; Foster, R. E.; Scannell, Carol; Feldman, W. R.; Crosswhite, Frank S.; Hansen, Chuck; et al. (University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1981)
    • Propogation of Taxosium mucronatum from Softwood Cuttings

      St. Hilaire, Rolston; Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, New Mexico State University (University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2003-06)
      Mexican bald cypress (Taxodium mucronatum Ten.) is propagated from seed, but procedures have not been reported for the propagation of this ornamental tree by stem cuttings. This study evaluated the use of softwood cuttings to propagate Mexican bald cypress. Softwood cuttings were collected on 16 October 1998 and 1999 from Las Cruces and Los Lunas, New Mexico, treated with either 3000 or 8000 ppm of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and held under intermittent mist in a greenhouse for 13 weeks. In 1998, cuttings sampled from one of two Los Lunas trees showed 48% and 82% rooting when treated with IBA at 3000 or 8000 ppm, respectively. Root number and average root length were 9 and 3 times greater, respectively, with 8000 ppm IBA than with 3000 ppm IBA. More 1998 cuttings rooted (65%) than 1999 cuttings (10%) when means were combined over IBA treatments. Results indicate that efficient propagation of Mexican bald cypress by cuttings depends on exogenous IBA and selection of stock plants amenable to root formation.
    • Protecting Arizona's Native Plants by Law and Regulation

      Countryman, Richard A.; Arizona Commission of Agriculture and Horticulture (University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1979-11)
    • The Pulse of the Nation: The Legume Badge of the Plantagenets

      Crosswhite, F. S.; Crosswhite, C. D. (University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990)
    • A Rapid Biological and Ecological Inventory and Assessment of the Cajon Bonito Watershed, Sonora, Mexico. Part 1: Natural History

      Hunt, Robert; Anderson, Walter; Environmental Studies Program, Prescott College (University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2002-12)
      Cajon Bonito is a perennial stream that drains the western watershed of the Sierra San Luis, Sonora, Mexico. The Sierra San Luis is one of dozens of mountain ranges that are referred to as "sky islands" in a region called the Madrean Archipelago. This landscape exhibits an enormous array of habitats and environments that has made it one of the "mega-biodiverse regions" of the planet. I discuss the unique setting and qualities that make Cajon Bonito one of the most crucial and robust corridors in this sky island archipelago. The information and data that support this conclusion were gathered using a unique set of protocols and field methodologies referred to as Rapid Inventory and Assessment (RAP). I have modified a plant species inventory field method, the variable transect, that was developed for use in the tropics, and I have applied it in the habitats of the Southwest. I have also streamlined the method so that it can be used by a single observer instead of a team. Use of this method in the Cajon Bonito watershed provided me with a quick source of raw, multi-dimensional sampling data. It also provided a wealth of non-quantitative environmental information that reveals the study site's rich natural history.
    • A Rapid Biological and Ecological Inventory and Assessment of the Cajon Bonito Watershed, Sonora, Mexico. PartII: Using the Variable Transect

      Hunt, Robert; Anderson, Walter; Environmental Studies Program, Prescott College (University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2004-12)
      The variable transect is an abbreviated, simplified version of a standard belt transect used in floristic analysis. Developed by the Rapid Assessment Program of Conservation International as part of a suite of "emergency field ecology" methods, it allows scientists to quickly inventory and assess habitats with high biodiversity values that are threatened by imminent development or other human activities. This alternate method was utilized in a study of Cajon Bonito in Sonora, Mexico. Assessment of the variable transect's value as both a convenient qualitative and quantitative tool for field studies and observations in the plant communities of the Southwest is reflected in the resulting database. The method proved flexible enough to vary the suite of floristic data to be sampled with little significant variation in the time spent applying the transect. The relatively quick sampling of flora, combined with easily characterized environmental observations, yields a wealth of information with less effort than most standard field methods.
    • Recalling Famous Arizona Botanists

      Miller, Victor (University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1998-12)
    • Reclamation and Fertilization of Coal Mine Soils in the Southwestern Desert

      Day, A. D.; Ludeke, K. L.; University of Arizona; Ludeke Corporation (University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986)
      A 5 -year experiment was conducted from 1978 through 1982 on the Black Mesa Coal Mine, Kayenta, Arizona, to study plant species best suited for coal mine reclamation and the effects of fertilizer on selected species. Five plant species were broadcast seeded on coal mine soil (spoils) and unmined soil. Prior to planting, 560 kg /ha of 16-20-0 fertilizer were applied on one -half of each site while the other half received no fertilizer. Immediately after planting, sprinkler irrigation water was applied on all plots, as needed, for the first two years. After two years, fertilizer and irrigation were discontinued on both soil materials and all plant species received only natural rainfall for the following three years. Coal mine soil contained more total soluble salts, nitrogen, potassium, sodium, and organic matter than did unmined soil; however, unmined soil had a higher pH and contained more phosphorous than did coal mine soil. Plant growth measurements were recorded for each plant species in October of each year. In general, plants grew better and produced more forage in unmined soil than they did in coal mine soil. All plant species grew better, yielded more forage, and produced a more satisfactory ground cover when they were fertilized than they did when they were not fertilized. Plant species differed greatly in general growth, forage yield, and percent ground cover within soil materials and within fertilizer treatments. Crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristaturn L.), western wheatgrass (Agropyron smithii Rydb.), and vernal alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) grew better, yielded more forage, and produced a more complete ground cover than did Indian ricegrass (Oryzopsis hymenoides Ricker) or fourwing saltbrush (Atriplex canescens Pursh). In general, the reclamation of unmined soil with fertilizer and a combination of natural rainfall and sprinkler irrigation during the first two years and with perennial grasses was more successful than the reclamation of coal mine soil with no fertilizer and with legumes or shrubs in the semiarid environment in the southwestern United States.
    • References

      University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1982
    • Reforestation in Ecuador's Dry Forest

      Agrawal, Anurag A.; Deparment of Entomology, University of California-Davis (University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1996-06)
    • Relict Conifer Forests and Woodlands

      Brown, David E.; Arizona Game and Fish Department (University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1982)