AffiliationLaboratory of Tree-Ring Research, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, 85721
KeywordsWater resources development -- Arizona.
Hydrology -- Arizona.
Hydrology -- Southwestern states.
Water resources development -- Southwestern states.
Time series analysis
Analysis of covariance
Principal components analysis
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RightsCopyright ©, where appropriate, is held by the author.
Collection InformationThis article is part of the Hydrology and Water Resources in Arizona and the Southwest collections. Digital access to this material is made possible by the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science and the University of Arizona Libraries. For more information about items in this collection, contact email@example.com.
PublisherArizona-Nevada Academy of Science
AbstractStatistical analyses of existing hydrologic records suffer from the problem that such records are of relatively short duration, and therefore may not necessarily be random samples of the infinite population of events. On the hypothesis that tree-ring series and runoff series respond to a common climatic signal or signals that permit prediction of annual runoff from annual ring-width index, tree-ring data are used to extend available runoff records backwards in time to permit more accurate estimates of the 3 most common statistics used in hydrology: the mean, the variance and the 1st order correlation. It is assumed that both series are generated by the climatic parameters of precipitation, temperature, evapotranspiration, seasonal regime and spatial distribution. Of major concern in the reconstruction of annual runoff series from tree-ring records was the difference in persistence within each of the 2 series. A matrix of the tree-ring data was constructed, lagged up to 3 times and principal components were extracted. The covariation in this matrix was then decomposed by extracting the Eigen-vectors, and multiple regression was then used to weight the respective series and the differences in persistence were determined. This method was applied to watersheds of diverse characteristics and improved estimates of the mean and variance were obtained.
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Benjamin Britten's "Cantata Misericordium", Opus 69: A theoretical analysis and a conductor's guide to gestural analysis.Osborn, Lawrence David.; Knott, Josef; Johnson, Roy A.; Reiter, Jocelyn (The University of Arizona., 1993)A complete theoretical and gestural analysis of Benjamin Britten's Opus 69 has usually been treated in a separate and, in terms of choral-orchestral synthesis, exclusive manner. Twentieth-century music reveals more technical complexities than music from earlier periods. For the professional conductor it is becoming increasingly impractical to limit oneself to the choral or instrumental area at the exclusion of the other. There are mutually complementary features and advantages in both the choral and instrumental area that can only serve to enhance and refine conducting gesture and technical artistry. These factors can be realized through the study and analysis of a delicate balanced work that requires, on the conductor's part, this synthesis of choral and instrumental technique. The choral-instrumental works of Benjamin Britten help provide this necessary synthesis and discipline. The Cantata Misericordium, in particular, admirably serves this necessary balance of choral-instrumental integration. The modest scoring for small string orchestra, string quartet, piano, harp, timpani, SATB chorus, and tenor and baritone soloists provides the conductor with a rich array of diversity in choral and instrumental technique. According to the Peter Evens article on Benjamin Britten in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians: Twentieth-Century English Masters, The Composer Biography Series, the Cantata Misericordium is "one of Britten's most beautifully realized works"¹ Writings on this work are few and provide only a limited theoretical analysis with no practical application pertaining to the technical aspects of gestural analysis. This project is designed to present a thorough theoretical and practical performance guide leading to performance through mastery of gesture and the integration of choral and orchestral forces. The purpose of the following Lecture-Recital Document is thereby twofold: (I) To provide a detailed compositional analysis and style summary of Benjamin Britten's work from the time of the War Requiem through the Cantata Misericordium. (II) To present a practical performance analysis that presents a study of the more subjective area of gestural analysis and the application of it in the context of the score itself. It is the application of a variety of gestural patterns that shape and refine a conductor's technical expertise. This score, along with other choral works of Benjamin Britten, provides a wealth of gestural analysis and application necessary for today's conductor. ¹The New Grove, "Twentieth Century English Masters", (New York & London: W. W. Norton & Company, 1986), p. 267.
The LC/MS/MS Analysis of Pyridinoline and Desmosines in Hypertensive Mouse Aorta, Elucidation of Arginine and Proline Fragmentation for the Analysis of Arginine Metabolism in Mosquitoes by LC/MS/MS, and Mudpit Identification of B. Pseudomallei Proteins in UrineWysocki, Vicki H.; Bush, David Roy; Larson, Douglas F.; Aspinwall, Craig A.; Saavedra, S. Scott; Montfort, William R.; Wysocki, Vicki H. (The University of Arizona., 2013)This dissertation presents an investigation into the application of mass spectrometry to the detection and quantitation of proteins and amino acids in complex biological samples. This is accomplished by two dimensional chromatography (strong cation exchange / reverse phase) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry followed by peptide spectrum matching for the detection of Burkholderia pseudomallei proteins in infected patient urine samples and reverse phase liquid chromatography coupled to a triple quadrupole and quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometers for the quantitation of cross-linked or free amino acids in mouse aorta or mosquito excreta, respectively. B. pseudomallei is a pathogenic gram negative bacillus that is endemic to the populations of Southeast Asia and is the causative agent of the disease melioidosis. LC/LC/MS/MS was used to identify candidate B. pseudomallei proteins for the development of a lateral flow immunoassay feasible for use in the impoverished communities that melioidosis affects. Three proteins (GroEL, FliC, and BipC) were identified, and have been detected in western blots and ELISAs of patient urine. Angiotensin II is known to increase both hypertension and vascular and cellular extracellular matrix remodeling, but little is known about the underlying mechanism of angiotensin II action on ECM remodeling. It has been hypothesized that the cross-linking of collagen by the enzyme lysyl oxidase increases the stiffness of the vasculature as increased levels of lysyl oxidase expression and activity have been observed in angiotensin II models of hypertension. LC/MS/MS was used to show that the cross-linking of ECM proteins increased over time in mice treated with angiotensin II over 4 weeks using a novel method to account for tissue heterogeneity in mouse aorta samples. Mosquitoes are missing a key enzyme in the urea cycle which makes arginine both an essential amino acid for mosquitoes but also makes mosquitoes unable catabolize arginine into non-toxic metabolites. MS/MS was used to show that mosquitoes excrete high levels of arginine after feeding. In addition, a previously undescribed fragmentation of arginine was elucidated using ¹⁸O labeling for future metabolism studies that would require the determination of individual arginine carbons based on fragmentation spectra.
Aeroelastic Analysis of Rotor Blades Using Three Dimensional Flexible Multibody Dynamic AnalysisMadenci, Erdogan; Das, Manabendra; Madenci, Erdogan; Madenci, Erdogan; Nikravesh, Parviz E.; Haldar, Achintya; Kundu, Tribikram; Straub, Friedrich K. (The University of Arizona., 2008)This study presents an approach based on the floating frame of reference method to model complex three-dimensional bodies in a multibody system. Unlike most of the formulations based on the floating frame of reference method, which assume small or moderate deformations, the present formulation allows large elastic deformations within each frame by using the co-rotational form of the updated Lagrangian description of motion. The implicit integration scheme is based on the Generalized-alpha method, and kinematic joints are invoked in the formulation through the coordinate partitioning method. The resulting numerical scheme permits the usage of relatively large time steps even though the flexible bodies may experience large elastic deformations. A triangular element, based on the first order shear deformable theory, has been developed specifically for folded plate and shell structures. The plate element does not suffer from either shear or aspect-ratio locking under transverse and membrane bending, respectively. A stiffened plate element has been developed that combines a shear deformable plate with a Timoshenko beam. A solid element, that utilized the isoparametric formulation along with incompatible modes, and one-dimensional elements are also included in the element library. The tools developed in the present work are then utilized for detailed rotorcraft applications. As opposed to the conventional approach of using beam elements to represent the rotor blade, the current approach focuses on detailed modeling of the blade using plate and solid elements. A quasi-steady model based on lifting line theory is utilized to compute the aerodynamic loads on the rotor blade in order to demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed tool to model rotorcraft aeroelasticity.