AffiliationDepartment of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona
KeywordsHydrology -- Arizona.
Water resources development -- Arizona.
Hydrology -- Southwestern states.
Water resources development -- Southwestern states.
River basin development
Grand Canyon National Park and Monument
Colorado River Outfitters Association
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RightsCopyright ©, where appropriate, is held by the author.
Collection InformationThis article is part of the Hydrology and Water Resources in Arizona and the Southwest collections. Digital access to this material is made possible by the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science and the University of Arizona Libraries. For more information about items in this collection, contact email@example.com.
PublisherArizona-Nevada Academy of Science
AbstractIncreased useer intensity of the Colorado River through Grand Canyon National Park and Monument required the national park service and the Colorado River outfitters association to adopt new policies to improve the quality of river trips and to protect the river. This study was undertaken to gain a greater awareness and understanding of visitor expectations, perceptions, interactions, satisfactions and dissatisfactions by analysis of response to a questionnaire mailed to a random sample of 2,622 past river runners from which a 65 percent return was received. Analysis of individual question tabulation and multivariate data-cluster analysis were performed. Users found crowding or user density to be at least tolerable. The largest group of runners were average in wilderness or other activities, and low relative to less strenuous activities. A large group of runners had relatively little experience in the wilderness. A large group of runners enjoyed the trip, desired more regulations, and were moderate about taking more trips. A large group rated the trip as a wilderness adventure which provided the opportunity to 'get away'. Cluster analysis is shown to be a useful tool of policy-making institutions.
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Stories like a River: The Character of Indian Water Rights and Authority in the Wind River and Klamath-Trinity BasinsDillon, John F. (The University of Arizona., 2013)The ability to decisively benefit from ample sources of freshwater represents a pivotal challenge for American Indian nations and their self-determination in the western United States. Climate change, population growth, and capitalist pressures continue to escalate demand for water in an already dry land. This project set out to listen and add practical perspective to the importance of water as reflected in various forms of stories in the context of American Indian reserved water rights. It explores dynamic confluences and divergences of worldviews that influence American Indian nations' relationships with water in the present sociopolitical context. The integral relationship between literatures, laws, and tribal sovereignty constructs this study's theoretical framework as it broadens scholarship on this connection to include the implications of water rights. This approach leads to a critical, or perhaps "literary critical," background for examining two major water rights struggles in the western United States; the first being court decisions on the Wind River Indian Reservation, home of the Eastern Shoshone and Northern Arapaho Tribes, and secondly, the Klamath-Trinity Basin, where four federally recognized tribes recently partook in water rights settlement negotiations. Litigation and negotiations over vital water are presently limited to the minefield of ambiguous Western narratives on the values and uses of Indian water rights. While each conflict has its unique circumstances and personalities, EuroAmerican stories of control and superiority continue to justify the exploitation of water and subjugation of Indigenous human rights. Alternative forums might make room for restorying and more sustainably managing water.
A multi-step automatic calibration scheme (MACS) for river forecasting models utilizing the national weather service river forecast system (NWSRFS)Sorooshian, Soroosh; Gupta, Hoshin; Hogue, Terri S.; Holz, Andrea; Braatz, Dean; Department of Hydrology & Water Resources, The University of Arizona (Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)Traditional model calibration by National Weather Service (NWS) River Forecast Center (RFC) hydrologists involves a laborious and time -consuming manual estimation of numerous parameters. The National Weather Service River Forecasting System (NWSRFS), a software system used by the RFCs for hydrologic forecasting, includes an automatic optimization program (OPT3) to aid in model calibration. The OPT3 program is not used operationally by the majority of RFC hydrologists who perform calibration studies. Lack of success with the traditional single - step, single-criterion automatic calibration approach has left hydrologists more comfortable employing a manual step-by-step process to estimate parameters. This study develops a Multistep Automatic Calibration Scheme (MACS), utilizing OPT3, for the river forecasting models used by the RFCs: the Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting (SAC-SMA). and SNOW-17 models. Sixteen parameters are calibrated in three steps, replicating the progression of manual calibration steps used by NWS hydrologists. MACS is developed by minimizing different objective functions for different parameters in a step -wise manner. Model runs are compared using the MACS optimized parameters and the manually estimated parameters for six basins in the North Central River Forecast Center (NCRFC) forecast area. Results demonstrate that the parameters obtained via the MACS procedure generally yield better model performance than those obtained by manual calibration. The MACS methodology is a time-saving approach that can provide prompt model forecasts for NWS watersheds.