AuthorMuller, Anthony B.
AffiliationDepartment of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721
KeywordsHydrology -- Arizona.
Water resources development -- Arizona.
Hydrology -- Southwestern states.
Water resources development -- Southwestern states.
Salt replacement desalination
High flux membranes
Fixed gel syneresis
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RightsCopyright ©, where appropriate, is held by the author.
Collection InformationThis article is part of the Hydrology and Water Resources in Arizona and the Southwest collections. Digital access to this material is made possible by the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science and the University of Arizona Libraries. For more information about items in this collection, contact email@example.com.
PublisherArizona-Nevada Academy of Science
AbstractThe process of salt replacement desalination proposed is believed to be able to produce vast quantities of fresh water be desalination. This method, which is a novel approach to minimizing the costs of saline water conversion, consists of the substitution of solutes in a solution to be desalted by a replacer chemical, and the low energy removal of that replacer chemical. The ultrafiltration of larger molecular sized replacer chemicals with high flux membranes increases the produce yield rate and reduces the corresponding energy requirement, with respect to reverse osmosis. In addition, the initial captial investment is less since no pressure constraining devices are required. The alteration of the osmotic pressure of the replacer solution within the process can also take advantage of energy savings through the utilization of an easily reversible reaction which synthesizes and breaks down a constituent that has a significant osmotic pressure difference between phases. Finally, the unusual process of fixed gel syneresis shows potential as a low energy salt replacement type process, but still requires extensive investigation.
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Economic Alternatives in Solving the U. S.-Mexico Colorado River Water Salinity Problem (invited)Martin, William E.; Arizona Agricultural Experiment Station, the University of Arizona, Tucson (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1974-04-20)A proposed desalting plant is an engineering solution to the effects of a problem which could have been avoided and even now could be reduced on the farm. Water costing $125 per acre-foot will be delivered to Mexico to grow wheat, cotton, garden crops, alfalfa and safflower, of which the average value added per acre-foot was estimated at $80 for cotton and garden crops and $14 for wheat, alfalfa and safflower. The U.S. government, instead of building the desalting complex, could accomplish its purpose just as well by paying each farmer in the Yuma area, in return for the farmers reducing their drainage flow by whatever method they see fit, $114 per acre per year for the next 50 years. With proper management on the farm, the costs of managing salinity need not be high.
United States-Mexico Water Agreements and Related Water Use in Mexicali Valley: A SummaryDeCook, K. J.; Water Resources Research Center, The University of Arizona, Tucson (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1974-04-20)A summary is given of interrelated, technical and institutional events concerning the Colorado River which took place between the United States and Mexico from 1849 to 1974 with emphasis on the 1961-1974 period. Until the treaty of 1944, Mexico had had no guarantee of a specific annual quantity of water, but in the years after 1945, when a guarantee of 1.5 million acre-feet per year was established, more than that amount was available for use. Salinity problems arose, and in 1965 an agreement for a 5-year plan for alleviating the technical and political difficulties surrounding the salinity question was made. In 1973 it was agreed that the United States would build, within approximately 5 years, a facility for desalting the saline drainage water entering Mexico. Fulfillment of the technical provisions for this agreement requires, in any event, the timely provision of federal funds to construct and operate the physical works. The several states should receive assurance that their rights and those of their respective water users will not be impaired within the legal operation of the agreement.
The Role of Water in the Energy-Water-Food Nexus: Optimization of Solar Desalination Systems and Novel Scaling Prevention SystemsMoore, Sarah (The University of Arizona., 2018)Increasing demand in energy, water, and food industries necessitates considerations of the inextricable links between them to support sustainable growth. This dissertation explores the role of water in the energy-water-food nexus through discussion of three research projects. The first research project explores the energy-water nexus by discussing optimized solar-driven desalination systems for providing drinking water in remote areas. Many remote communities are disproportionately affected by water scarcity. Some regions have access to saline water sources, making desalination a viable method for mitigating water scarcity. However, these regions may lack access to central power, making solar driven desalination a potential solution. The objective of this research was to develop process models to simulate the non-steady operation of solar driven desalination technologies. Models were used to quantify the system efficiency or cost of water. Non-linear multi-variable optimization was performed to optimize the system by adjusting equipment sizes and operating parameters. In all cases, membrane distillation systems were more expensive than traditional solar desalination technologies. However, the cost of membrane distillation systems may be reduced by reducing costs of membrane modules and solar thermal collectors. The second research project explores the water-food nexus by discussing methods of recovering nutrients from domestic wastewater to secure a novel fertilizer source for sustainable food production. Phosphorous, an essential fertilizer component, is in short supply. However, there are high levels of phosphorous in municipal wastewater. Methods of recovering phosphorous are of great interest. Struvite (MgNH4PO4∙6H2O) is an insoluble mineral that forms in waters rich in phosphorous, especially in municipal wastewater treatment plants. Struvite scaling in processing equipment and pipes causes significant processing problems, but can be beneficial in a controlled environment as it can be recovered and used as fertilizer to help mitigate current phosphorous shortages. Current struvite control technologies, including ferric chloride, make recovery difficult, so alternatives are needed. A potential alternative is application of residual biogas, a byproduct of wastewater treatment rich in carbon dioxide, to lower the pH of wastewater as struvite is more soluble at low pH. CO2 may be easily stripped from solution, allowing for more economical struvite recovery. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using residual carbon dioxide for struvite control. Bench- and pilot-scale experiments demonstrated the feasibility of using carbon dioxide to prevent struvite formation. Models were developed to predict the pH upon carbon dioxide addition and validated using experimental results. Finally, the models were used to develop a design tool to facilitate rapid implementation of sustainable struvite control systems at any wastewater treatment plant. This will allow for economical recovery of nutrients from wastewater to support expansion of sustainable farming practices. In the third and final project, the efficacy of a novel ion exchange material for removal of silica from cooling tower water was investigated. Silica is ubiquitous in industrial wastewaters and causes several scaling, prohibiting the recovery and reuse of wastewater. Calcined hydrotalcite (HTC) was demonstrated to be effective in selectively removing silica in batch and continuous experiments in the presence of competing cations. This technology represents a low-cost solution to silica scaling and will help reduce the water requirements of power generation and other industrial processes.