AffiliationTonto National Forest, Phoenix, Arizona
Southwestern Region, U.S.F.S., Albuquerque, New Mexico
KeywordsHydrology -- Arizona.
Water resources development -- Arizona.
Hydrology -- Southwestern states.
Water resources development -- Southwestern states.
Atterbury watershed (Tucson Ariz)
Universal soil loss equation
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RightsCopyright ©, where appropriate, is held by the author.
Collection InformationThis article is part of the Hydrology and Water Resources in Arizona and the Southwest collections. Digital access to this material is made possible by the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science and the University of Arizona Libraries. For more information about items in this collection, contact firstname.lastname@example.org.
PublisherArizona-Nevada Academy of Science
AbstractA stochastic model is presented for the prediction of sediment yield in a semi-arid watershed based on rainfall data and watershed characteristics. Random variables which lead to uncertainty in the model are rainfall amount, storm duration, runoff, and peak flow. Soil conservation service formulas are used to compute the runoff and peak flow components of the universal soil loss equation, and a transformation of random variables is used to obtain the distribution function of sediment yield from the joint distribution of rainfall amount and storm duration. Applications of the model are in the planning of reservoirs and dams where the effective lifetime of the facility may be evaluated in terms of storage capacity as well as the effects of land management of the watershed. In order to calibrate the model and to evaluate the uncertainties involved, experimental data from the Atterbury watershed near Tucson, Arizona were used.
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Applicability of the Universal Soil Loss Equation to Semiarid Rangeland Conditions in the SouthwestRenard, K. G.; Simanton, J. R.; Osborn, H. B.; United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Western Region, Southwest Watershed Research Center, Tucson, Arizona 85705 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1974-04-20)An erosion prediction method that has recently received wide attention in the United States is the universal soil loss equation which is given as: a=rklscp. Where a = estimated soil loss (tons/acre/year), r = a rainfall factor, k = a soil erodibility factor, l = a slope length factor, s = a slope gradient factor, c = a cropping-management factor, and p = an erosion control practice factor. Data collected on the walnut gulch experimental watershed in southeastern Arizona were used to estimate these factors for semiarid rangeland conditions. The equation was then tested with data from watersheds of 108 and 372 acres. The predicted value of annual sediment yield was 1.29 tons/acre/year as compared with an average 1.64 tons/acre/year for 4 years of data for the 108-acre watershed, and a sediment yield of 0.39 tons/acre/year was predicted for the 372-acre watershed as compared with the measured value of 0.52 tons/acre/year. Although good agreement was noted between predicted and actual sediment yield, additional work is needed before the equation can be applied to other areas of the southwest.
SEDIMENT BYPASS SYSTEM FOR IMPOUNDING RESERVOIRS.EFTEKHARZADEH, SHAHRIAR. (The University of Arizona., 1987)This study proposes the use of a pipe line system to transport the inflow sediment to a reservoir through the dam, and discharge it downstream. The system is powered by the available head at the dam. It aims at restoring the original sediment transport regime of the river (i.e. before the dam was built). The idea is fundamentally sound because of the much more efficient sediment transport characteristics of pipes compared to that of open channels. The necessary theory for the hydraulic design of such a system was simply not available and is developed in this study. The work of numerous previous investigators is summarized in the final results and in the developed equation which allows for the calculation of the capacity transport concentration of sediments in pipes. This equation, coupled with the most accepted head loss equation, and the continuity principle, allows for the hydraulic design of systems transporting grannular material. The calculation procedures were fitted into computer programs. In addition to computer programs, design charts where developed which allow for quick application as well as visualization of the developed concepts. It was concluded that the proposed system is fundamentally feasible. Although no economic analysis was conducted, indicators show that it is also economically favorable.