Applications of Direct Osmosis: Design Characteristics for Hydration and Dehydration
AffiliationSchool of Renewable Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson
Department of Physics, University of Arizona, Tucson
KeywordsHydrology -- Arizona.
Water resources development -- Arizona.
Hydrology -- Southwestern states.
Water resources development -- Southwestern states.
Waste water treatment
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RightsCopyright ©, where appropriate, is held by the author.
Collection InformationThis article is part of the Hydrology and Water Resources in Arizona and the Southwest collections. Digital access to this material is made possible by the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science and the University of Arizona Libraries. For more information about items in this collection, contact firstname.lastname@example.org.
PublisherArizona-Nevada Academy of Science
AbstractIn direct (normal, forward) osmosis water automatically flows through a semipermeable membrane from a "source" solution of low concentration to a "driving" solution with higher solute content. The process requires a membrane which is impermeable to the solutes; hydrostatic pressure differences are not directly involved and can be set equal to zero. In principle, direct osmosis is a low -technology, low-power consumption method for reducing the water volume of industrial effluents or liquid agricultural products, and for reclaiming brackish irrigation water. In the latter application the driving solution may utilize fertilizer as a solute; the source solution is drainage that contains harmful salt components. This type of operation has been experimentally demonstrated. This paper summarizes basic physical principles and introduces some quantitative design factors which must be understood on both a fundamental and on an applications level.
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