Simulation of Summer Rainfall Occurrence in Arizona and New Mexico
AffiliationSouthwest Watershed Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, Tucson, Arizona
Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona
KeywordsHydrology -- Arizona.
Water resources development -- Arizona.
Hydrology -- Southwestern states.
Water resources development -- Southwestern states.
Maximum probable flood
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Collection InformationThis article is part of the Hydrology and Water Resources in Arizona and the Southwest collections. Digital access to this material is made possible by the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science and the University of Arizona Libraries. For more information about items in this collection, contact firstname.lastname@example.org.
PublisherArizona-Nevada Academy of Science
AbstractThunderstorms produce most of the annual rainfall and almost all runoff from arid and semiarid rangelands in the southwest U.S. A model was developed to be used for predicting runoff in river basins, flood plane zonings, estimating flood damage, erosion, and sediment transport, and estimating precipitation available for forage growth. This rainfall occurrence model has three parameters: elevation, latitude and longitude, and takes into account rainfall occurrence in 22 stations located in Arizona and New Mexico. From these variables, mathematical equations were developed in an effort to predict point rainfall occurrence. Estimates of the number of seasonal occurrences were used as a check of the equations within the model.
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Regional Differences in Runoff-Producing Thunderstorms Rainfall in the SouthwestOsborn, H. B.; Southwest Watershed Research Center, Tucson, Arizona, 85705 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1971-04-23)Quantitative descriptions of regional differences of rainfall amounts and intensities in the southwest, such as depth-duration frequencies, generally have ignored differences in the storm system that generated the rainfall and have lumped essentially different storm systems together. Thunderstorm rainfall in southern Arizona and New Mexico were analyzed using data from both recording and standard rain gages. The results were somewhat conflicting. Possibly because of more frontal activity and less distance from the Gulf of Mexico., the thunderstorms in eastern New Mexico can be more intense than those in southeastern Arizona. Recording rain gage records suggest that air-mass thunderstorms produce a larger number of more intense short-duration (about 1 hour or less) rains in southeastern Arizona than in other parts of southern Arizona. However, standard rain gage records from southern Arizona indicate that rainfall from individual air-mass thunderstorms may be greater in south-central Arizona than in se or sw Arizona. But frequency analysis of standard gage data from air-mass storms shows that the 100-year point rainfall is about 3 inches in all 3 regions. With more data becoming available, especially from remote areas, more exact separation of thunderstorm types and a better definition of rainfall will soon be possible.
The Use of a Realistic Rainfall Simulator to Determine Relative Infiltration Rates of Contributing Watersheds to the Lower Gila Below Painted Rock DamCluff, C. B.; Boyer, D. G.; Water Resources Research Center, University of Arizona; Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1971-04-23)The rotadisk rainulator is a recently developed rainfall simulator utilizing a full-cone-spray type nozzle. Its unique feature is the rotation of disks of various size openings that makes it possible to produce intensities from close to zero up to full nozzle capacity. Disks may be quickly changed, making it possible to study the effects of various intensities on infiltration rates, such as occur in natural storms. For all intensities above 1.0 in/hr, the instrument comes closer to duplicating kinetic energies and momenta of natural rainfall than any other type of rainfall simulator. Little rainfall-runoff data are available on most of the Lower Gila watersheds. Infiltration rates were therefore determined using the rotadisk rainulator on recompacted soil samples from the watershed. The results permitted a ranking of the watersheds on the basis of infiltration rates, which supports an independent flood frequency analysis indicating that the flood threat from subwatersheds along the Gila is much lower than had previously been projected. When the instrument is taken into the field, it should be possible to directly determine the infiltration rates of different soil and vegetation types, which will be of more use to hydrologists than data from recompacted samples
Display and Manipulation of Inventory DataGale, R. D.; Russel, J. W.; Siverts, L. E.; Tonto National Forest, Phoenix, Arizona; Southwestern Region, U.S.F.S., Albuquerque, New Mexico (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1974-04-20)A stochastic model is presented for the prediction of sediment yield in a semi-arid watershed based on rainfall data and watershed characteristics. Random variables which lead to uncertainty in the model are rainfall amount, storm duration, runoff, and peak flow. Soil conservation service formulas are used to compute the runoff and peak flow components of the universal soil loss equation, and a transformation of random variables is used to obtain the distribution function of sediment yield from the joint distribution of rainfall amount and storm duration. Applications of the model are in the planning of reservoirs and dams where the effective lifetime of the facility may be evaluated in terms of storage capacity as well as the effects of land management of the watershed. In order to calibrate the model and to evaluate the uncertainties involved, experimental data from the Atterbury watershed near Tucson, Arizona were used.