Synthesis and Pharmacological Evaluation of Nitrogen Oxide Releasing Prodrugs
AdvisorMiranda, Katrina M.
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PublisherThe University of Arizona.
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EmbargoRelease after 01-Aug-2014
AbstractThe main goals of this research were to synthesize nitrogen oxide releasing diazeniumdiolates and their prodrugs and to evaluate their pharmacological effects. The different projects and their results are described below. i. Comparison of HNO and NO donating properties of cyclic amine diazeniumdiolates Diazeniumdiolates are an attractive class of donor compounds as they can be tuned to release NO or both NO and HNO depending upon the amine backbone. Isopropylamine (IPA/NO) and cyclohexylamine (CHA/NO) diazeniumdiolates are currently the only examples of primary amine based diazeniumdiolates. A series of structurally related cyclic amine based diazeniumdiolates were synthesized and characterized. An acetoxymethyl derivative was also synthesized to facilitate cellular uptake and to achieve higher HNO levels in cells. ii. Nitrogen oxide releasing diazeiumdiolate based adducts of N-des-methyl-tamoxifen Nitrogen oxide (NO/HNO) donating diazeniumdiolate adducts of N-desmethyltamoxifen (a key metabolite of the breast cancer drug tamoxifen) were synthesized. DEA/NO-AcOM, an NO donor was also synthesized to monitor the effect of NO on breast cancer cell survival. Derivatives of N-desmethyltamoxifen were found to be effective towards estrogen receptor positive (ER+) cells only. DEA/NO-AcOM was found to be cytotoxic towards estrogen-dependent and independent cell lines, in combination with tamoxifen, or by itself. iii. Synthesis and characterization of nitrogen oxide adducts with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) Our group has shown HNO releasing diazeniumdiolate derivatized aspirin to be comparably effective in preventing gastric ulceration to NO-releasing diazeniumdiolate based aspirin analogues. Series of such NSAID adducts were further extended by synthesizing such derivatives of indomethacin and niflumic acid. NO/HNO releasing analogues of aspirin and indomethacin were cytotoxic towards two different breast cancer cell lines, irrespective of estrogen dependence.iv. Chlorambucil analogue of PABA/NOChlorambucil, an alkylating agent is used in leukemia treatment. Tumor cells resistant to alkylating agents often have increased glutathione levels and increased activity of glutathione-S-transferase (GST). PABA/NO is an NO donor with a promising anticancer profile. The chlorambucil analogue of PABA/NO was synthesized to utilize GST for releasing NO and to potentially overcome cellular resistance.
Degree ProgramGraduate College