Radial Growth Losses in Douglas-Fir and White Fir Caused by Western Spruce Budworm in Northern New Mexico: 1700-1983
AuthorSwetnam, Thomas W.
AffiliationLaboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona
KeywordsWestern spruce budworm -- New Mexico -- Carson National Forest -- History.
Douglas fir -- New Mexico -- Carson National Forest -- Growth.
Abies concolor -- New Mexico -- Carson National Forest -- Growth.
Douglas fir -- Losses -- New Mexico -- Carson National Forest.
Abies concolor -- Losses -- New Mexico -- Carson National Forest.
Douglas fir -- New Mexico -- Carson National Forest -- Growth -- Statistics.
Abies concolor -- New Mexico -- Carson National Forest -- Growth -- Statistics.
Douglas fir -- Losses -- New Mexico -- Carson National Forest -- Statistics.
Abies concolor -- Losses -- New Mexico -- Carson National Forest -- Statistics.
MetadataShow full item record
DescriptionFinal Report / Contract on 43-8371-4-628 / For: USDA, Forest Service, Southwestern Region
AbstractRegional outbreaks of western spruce budworms (Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman) have recurred at least three times in northern New Mexico since the early 1920's when the U. S. Forest Service first began systematic forest-pest surveys and documentation (Lessard 1975, U. S. Forest Service documents). The current outbreak was first noticed in a small area on the Taos Indian Reservation in 1974, and since then the defoliated areas have increased in New Mexico and Arizona to more than 370,000 acres of Federal, Indian, State and private lands (Linnane 1984). Losses in timber values can generally be ascribed to radial growth loss, height growth loss, topkilling, reduced regeneration, and mortality (Carlson et al. 1983, Fellin et al. 1983). A damage assessment project was initiated in 1978 and was aimed at obtaining measurements of some of these losses in budworm infested stands on the Carson National Forest, New Mexico (Holland and Lessard 1979). A large data base has subsequently been developed, including yearly measurements on topkilling, mortality, defoliation, and insect population changes (Stein 1980, 1981, Stein and McDonnell 1982, Rogers 1984). A growth assessment study was undertaken in 1982 to determine the feasibility of using dendrochronological methods to identify the timing of past outbreaks and to quantify radial growth losses associated with budworm defoliation (Swetnam 1984). Results of this work showed that three major outbreaks during the twentieth century were clearly visible in the tree-ring samples obtained from currently infested trees. The radial growth of host trees was corrected for age, climate and other non-budworm environmental effects, and then growth losses were computed as a percentage of expected growth (Swetnam 1984). Additional collections were obtained in 1984 in order to expand the scope of the radial growth study. The objectives included 1) assessment of a larger number of tree -ring samples, 2) comparison of radial growth losses between the two primary host species - Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and white fir (Abies concolor), 3) comparison of radial growth losses between age classes, and 4) analysis of the relationship between yearly measurements of defoliation, insect populations and radial growth. This report summarizes the findings of the above analyses. Increment core samples from the 1982 collections are included here, therefore this report supersedes the earlier report (Swetnam 1984). Information is also presented on observations derived from the dated tree-ring series on the timing of occurrence of known and inferred spruce budworm outbreaks for the past 284 years (1700- 1983). This is the longest record of spruce budworm occurrence yet developed for western North America.
SponsorsU.S. Forest Service, Southwestern Region Forest Pest Management, and the Canada United States Spruce Budworms research program, Contracts ON 43-8371-3-425, and ON 43-8371-4-628.
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Radial Growth Assessment of Western Spruce Budworm Infested Douglas-Fir Trees on the Carson National Forest, New MexicoSwetnam, Thomas W.; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1983-11-03)Growth of western spruce budworm (WSBW) infested Douglas-fir (Pseudotsugae menziesii) forests on the Carson National Forest, New Mexico, was assessed through dendrochronological analysis of increment cores extracted at breast height. Comparisons of indexed and filtered host and non-host (ponderosa pine [Pinus ponderosa]), tree-ring chronologies revealed that host tree growth was reduced during past and present WSBW outbreaks. The non -host chronologies were used to remove the non-WSBW growth effects from the host chronologies, and the corrected host tree growth indices were then used to assess growth loss during known outbreak periods. Maximum growth loss during one year was generally greater than 50 percent. The average growth loss for five year periods during outbreaks was approximately 30 to 40 percent, and the maximum growth loss between two years during an outbreak was usually more than 50 percent.
The archaeology of Laguna Bustillos Basin, Chihuahua, MexicoMacWilliams, Arthur Carson (The University of Arizona., 2001)Laguna Bustillos Basin in central Chihuahua is one of several closed basins having abundant remains of human occupation. During several field seasons of survey and excavation in this basin and surrounding areas, 75 sites were recorded, and ten of these partially excavated. Objectives of this research were describing archaeological remains, introducing a preliminary culture historical framework for the Ceramic period, and both identifying and addressing topics for research. Late Archaic period sites are abundant in a dunefield north of Laguna Bustillos. Most excavated sites are small Ceramic period rancheria settlements. Radiocarbon dates from these sites span roughly AD 200 to AD 1200, with a preponderance of calibrated dates spanning AD 800-1200. These are referred to as La Cruz sites. Additionally, one multi-component cave site and a cerro de trincheras were tested. The cave provided evidence of repeated use of mountains bounding the north side of Laguna Bustillos Basin. Radiocarbon dates from the cerro de trincheras indicate later occupation, probably after AD 1400. A pit house was excavated in one site 80 km north of Laguna Bustillos. This site is the same radiocarbon age as most or all La Cruz sites but distinctly different, belonging to the Viejo period of Northwest Chihuahua. These results are used to suggest that a social boundary existed between these areas 1000 years ago and that Laguna Bustillos Basin was temporarily abandoned at approximately AD 1200. Cultural persistence and emphatic dependence on local resources by dispersed populations are also viable interests for future research.