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The contradictory faculty: Part-time faculty at community collegesCheslock, John J.; Wagoner, Richard Lee (The University of Arizona., 2004)Because of community colleges' diverse motivations for hiring part-time faculty, the multiple and at times conflicting missions of various two-year institutions, and the heterogeneity of part-timers themselves, contradictory descriptions of part-time faculty are found in the literature. This study sought to unify contradictory categorizations of part-time faculty in three specific areas: the general demographics of part-time faculty; the existence of a bifurcated or dual faculty labor market in community colleges; and satisfaction of part-time faculty. The study was a quantitative analysis of community college faculty data from both the 1993 and 1999 National Study of Postsecondary Faculty. Given the evidence that community colleges are increasingly globalized institutions, the study sought to discover if part-time faculty could be better conceptualized in terms of temporary labor in the New Economy. Therefore, two-year faculty were disaggregated into seven groups based on college mission and relative employment opportunities outside of academe. It is argued that a gulf exists for temporary labor in the New Economy. Some temporary labor is valued by the institutions that hire them because of the skill and expertise they bring. This group has numerous options outside of the employing institution to capitalize on their skills and expertise. On the other side of the gulf of temporary labor is the group that does not possess rare, highly-valued skills and abilities. These part-timers do not have numerous opportunities in multiple industries. This lack of employment options causes these part-timers to seek, sometimes desperately so, full-time, stable employment with the institution where they are employed. The findings from this study indicate that these two types of part-timers exist simultaneously on community college campuses and they can be distinguished by the disaggregation employed by this study. The study presented evidence that adds nuance to an understanding of part-time faculty in three areas: demographics, particularly in terms of gender and academic training; labor market conditions, including income, professional development opportunities, conceptions of institutional employment, and the status and sector of outside employment; and satisfaction with the demands and rewards of part-time employment.
Scalable and Practical Teaching Practices Faculty Can Deploy to Increase Retention: A Faculty Cookbook for Increasing Student SuccessHempel, Byron; Kiehlbaugh, Kasi; Blowers, Paul; Univ Arizona, Chem & Environm Engn; Univ Arizona, Coll Engn (Elsevier BV, 2020-10)Student retention in college is often expected to be handled by advisers, staff, and administrators. The uni-versity classroom-specifically, the pedagogies and practices that are utilized there-is a largely untapped resource in our quest to increase student success and retention. Instructional faculty are the only members of an academic institution that students are required to interact with regularly. For most courses offered in higher education, the contact time between faculty and students is typically three hours per week; faculty can have a significant impact on student outcomes in that time. This paper reviews and discusses scalable and practical teaching practices that span the domains of growth mindset, self-efficacy, metacognition, and belongingness. These teaching practices helped increase student retention by more than 30% in an entry-level core engineering course at our institution. The techniques described in this work can be deployed either simultaneously or in discrete sets to help students remain engaged in the educational process and successfully graduate. Because teaching is a universal practice, the teaching practices can be deployed in nearly every discipline and at every academic level. Most of the practices are independent of which instructional modes are being used, e.g., active learning vs lecturing, large vs small classes, or online vs in-person delivery. The specific implementation and effectiveness of the teaching practices may differ in each of those contexts, particularly with academic age of students, but improvements in student success and retention can be expected if the framework described here is used. We strongly recommend that a reflective process be deployed throughout implementation of the different teaching practices. This will allow for personal and professional growth in the instructor as they deploy the techniques while also improving the efficacy of the techniques themselves over time as they are refined for the local teaching environment. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Institution of Chemical Engineers.
Stress in newly hired, novice faculty: Causes, coping strategies, and interventions for faculty and institutionsDinham, Sarah M.; Pugh, Karen Lavinia, 1965- (The University of Arizona., 1996)The research questions for this study focus on the stress level reported by new faculty, the causes of stress, and the coping strategies used to deal with stress. Data from the New Faculty Project of the National Center for Postsecondary Teaching, Learning, and Assessment, were analyzed to understand the experiences of newly hired faculty at Research-I, Comprehensive-I, Liberal Arts-I, and Two-Year Institutions. Newly hired non-tenured, and below associate professor rank faculty were selected from the initial sample of 177 newly hired faculty; 136 faculty completed surveys, and 95 faculty completed interviews for each of the first three years of their employment. A moderate level of stress was reported and remained relatively stable over time. The causes of faculty stress were of three types: those innate to the position, those due to being new, and those due to life stressors. Three types of coping strategies were employed: those providing a solution, those allowing faculty to maintain, and those in which faculty "gave up".