AffiliationDepartment of Geography, Arizona State University
Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona
U.S. Water Conservation Laboratory, Phoenix, Arizona
KeywordsClimatology -- Arizona.
Dendrochronology -- Arizona.
Dendroclimatology -- Arizona.
Arizona -- Climate.
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AbstractIntroduction: The climate of any region sets the tempo of indigenous life styles and largely dictates the scale and type of economic activity that can be sustained. In Arizona, we are subject to perhaps more climatic restraints than are many other areas, due to the high air temperatures in summer and the rather low yearly rainfall. But, weather is variable; and its sum total -- climate -- is not unchanging either. Thus, in planning the future direction economic activity should take, prospects for changes in climate should be considered. In this paper we attempt to marshal the best evidence available to outline the possibilities for Arizona's future climate. We hope that the information will prove useful to those who must make the difficult decisions that will shape the character of our state in the years to come.
Series/Report no.Climatological Publications. Scientific Papers No. 2
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Water infiltration and percolation at the University of Arizona radioactive waste burial site, Pinal County, ArizonaSalvetti, Joseph Peter.; Dutt, Gordon R. (The University of Arizona., 1984)The University of Arizona produces different types of radioactively contaminated waste. It is shipped to a burial site located on the Oracle Agricultural Center in Pinal County, Arizona and disposed of in shallow pits. This study dealt with water movement at the disposal site. Monitoring of water movement through young pits was accomplished with a neutron probe. It was found that due to slumping and cracking of the pit cap, the younger pits were very susceptible to greater than normal water infiltration. Further data were gathered around the older pits by deep soil sampling for tritium activity. Water fluxes and travel times to the major aquifer were calculated from these data. Estimates of travel times range from 40 to 230,000 years to reach the principal aquifer at 150 m.
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The ethnobotany and phenology of plants in and adjacent to two riparian habitats in southeastern Arizona.Asdall, Willard Van; Adams, Karen Rogers.; Mason, Charles T.; Martin, Paul S.; Davis, Owen K.; Turner, Raymond M. (The University of Arizona., 1988)Two riparian habitats in southeastern Arizona provide the setting for a study of 127 plants useful to human foragers. A view of plant part availability is based on annual phenological profiles, and on historic and prehistoric records of plant use. Food choice is limited in March and April, but high August through November. Riparian plants also offer numerous non-food resources. Trees and shrubs serve more needs in relation to number of available species than do perennial herbs (including grasses) and annuals. Southwestern ethnographic literature hints that certain native taxa (Panicum, Physalis, Populus, Salix, Typha and Vitis) might receive special care. Inherent qualities of parts, coupled with ethnographic records of preparation and use, provide a basis for speculation on which parts might survive in an ancient record. Most are expected to disintegrate in open sites. Parts sought for different needs can enter a dwelling via diverse routes that produce confusingly similar archaeological debris. Modern experiments to wash pollen from 14 separate harvests permit evaluation of plant fruit and leaves as pollen traps, to help interpret pollen recovered from ancient dwellings. High amounts of Berberis, Rumex and Ribes pollen, sometimes in clumps or as tetrads, travel on harvested fruit. Arctostaphylos, Monarda, Oxalis, Rhus, Rhamnus, Vitis and Juniperus parts carry lower amounts. Quercus and Gramineae pollen grains travel on parts of other taxa, as well as on their own fruit. The phenological profiles offer insight into group life-form activities in response to local temperature and precipitation trends. Rising and maximum temperatures coincide with intense vegetative and reproductive activity for trees, shrubs, herbaceous perennials, and annuals. Increased levels of precipitation coincide with maximum flowering and fruiting of herbaceous perennials and fall annuals. Limited data on six taxa from Utah generally agrees with observations in this study, suggesting strong genetic control in the phenology of some riparian taxa.