Resource Information Applied to Water Sources and Discharges at Existing and Potential Power Plant Sites in Arizona and the Southwest: Project Completion Report
AffiliationUniversity of Arizona
University of Arizona
Electric utilities -- Southwest, New -- Water-supply.
Electric utilities -- Arizona -- Water supply.
Electric power-plants -- Arizona.
Electric power-plants -- Southwest, New.
Industrial water supply -- Arizona.
Industrial water supply -- Southwest, New.
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PublisherUniversity of Arizona (Tucson, AZ)
DescriptionProject Completion Report, OWRT Project No. A-043-ARIZ / Agreement No. 14-31-0001-4003 / Project Dates: July 1973 - June 1974 / Acknowledgment: The work upon which this report is based was supported in large part by funds provided by the United States Department of the Interior, Office of Water Research and Technology, as authorized under the Water Resources Research Act of 1964.
AbstractA growing demand for energy production in Arizona has increased the need for assembling and analyzing water resource information relative to energy production, especially electrical power generation. Unit water requirements for cooling of electrical plants, combined with projections of future electrical power demands in Arizona, provide a perspective on future quantities of water needed for cooling. Probabilistic estimates of storage reserves in Arizona groundwater basins indicate that some prospective plant sites can be supplied from groundwater for the 30 -year life of the plant, while others cannot. An estimate of comparative cost for supplying groundwater versus municipal wastewater for cooling electrical plants at selected sites in Arizona showed that use of wastewater would result in considerable savings over use of groundwater, at all sites considered.
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The phylogeny and water relations of pinyon pines in relation to the vicariance biogeography of the American southwestMalusa, James Rudolph.; Donoghue, Michael; Telewski, Frank; Davis, Russell; Martin, Paul; Robichaux, Robert (The University of Arizona., 1989)Axelrod (1958) suggested that the late Tertiary shift in regional climate -- the elimination of summer rains -- had a profound influence on the evolution of biotic provinces in the American southwest. In particular, the taxa endemic to biotic provinces characterized by summer drought, e.g., the Mojave Desert, should be derived from ancestors that likely inhabited regions of summer rain, e.g., the Chihuahuan Desert. Further, the derived features of summer-drought taxa should be related to water stress. I examined Axelrod's thesis, using a combination of phylogenetic systematics, physiological ecology, and vicariance biogeography. The first chapter is a cladistic study of the pinyon pines, 13 taxa of small trees that range from the summer-wet regions of Mexico to the summer drought regions of Nevada and California. A parsimony analysis using twenty morphological characters showed that the most recently derived pinyons are from regions of summer drought. The "summer-drought" taxa are characterized by relatively few needles per fascicle. Because fewer needles per fascicle results in a reduction in the needle surface-to-volume ratio, Haller (1965) hypothesized that fewer needles in pines is an adaptation to reduce transpirational water loss. The second chapter reports on a two year study of the xylem pressure potentials of single- and double-needled fascicles of hybrid pinyons in central Arizona. The results showed no significant differences between single- and double-needles. I concluded that either needle morphology does not effect water relations, or that the relatively high precipitation during the study did not allow significant water stress to occur. The third chapter uses the methods of vicariance biogeography to search for a common pattern of relationship between southwestern biotic provinces, as indicated by the relationships of their endemic taxa. Using a biogeographic parsimony analysis, I compared the area cladograms of six taxa -- junipers, pinyon pines, the composite Palafoxia, hedgehog cactus, desert tortoises, and gecko lizards. The most parsimonious area cladogram supports Axelrod's (1958) hypothesis, but also shows that some taxa, notably the junipers, support other patterns of area relationships, e.g., summer-drought primitive. I suggest that there is no single pattern of area relationships because of the effects of the Pleistocene (including dispersal and extinction) and vicariance events other than the Tertiary climatic change, e.g., the separation of the Baja peninsula from mainland Mexico during the Miocene.
A Water Supply Data BaseNunamaker, J. F.; Pingry, David E.; Riley, Rex; Departments of Management Information Systems and Economics, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona; Electric Power Research Institute, Inc., Palo Alto, California (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1977-04-16)This paper describes a water supply data base being developed for the Colorado River Basin States by the University of Arizona under contract with the Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. This data base is a guide to existing natural, technical, economic, and legal water data and water data agencies in the states of Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah and Wyoming.
Sulfuric Acid: Its Potential for Improving Irrigation Water QualityBohn, H. L.; Westerman, R. L.; Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soils, University of Arizona, Tucson (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1971-04-23)The 2 major environmental problems of Arizona and the southwest are the alkalinization of soil and water by irrigation and air pollution from copper smelting. It is proposed that the amelioration of both problems may be solved through a common process. This is the production of sulfuric acid from sulfur dioxide, which is the main pollutant of smelter effluent gases. The conversion process is cheap and easy, and the sulfuric acid could then be added to irrigation waters to increase the solubility of CA carbonate in the soil, thereby decreasing alkalinity. Lower alkalinity results in increased soil permeability and increased water use efficiency by plants. The potential market for sulfuric acid in irrigation was calculated, on the basis of neutralizing 90% of the bicarbonate ion concentration in Colorado River water and Arizona well water, to be about 1.6 million tons annually, representing about 1/3 of the sulfur now dissipated by smelters as air pollution. This market includes both the Imperial Valley of California and the Mexicali Valley of Mexico, both of which are currently experiencing mounting salinity problems. Salinity itself is not amenable to this treatment, but the cumulative increase in NA and bicarbonate may be slowed and reversed, leading to gradual soil stabilization.