• Advanced and Spatial Statistics in High School Basketball

      Sanchez Trigueros, Fernando; Reigelsperger, Jordan (The University of Arizona., 2021-08)
      Sports analytics in professional basketball leagues, such as the National Basketball Association (NBA), have transformed their respective leagues by introducing new statistical measures to quantify individual player and team performance. NBA organizations have teams of personnel and dedicated analytics departments dedicated to analysis. However, high schools generally do not. Thus, revolutionary statistical measures are not available to the programs serving as the foundation for professional leagues. Data from a five-game stretch of the 2020-2021 varsity boys’ basketball season was utilized to provide a high school with advanced statistical measures to evaluate individual player and team performance. A review and plotting of game-tape from the sample was performed, followed by the calculation of advanced and spatial statistics. The advanced statistics revealed that during the sample individual players and the team were less efficient than their professional counterparts in all areas. The relative inefficiency is attributed to a lack of 3-point shots, the result of 3-point shots when taken, and the prevalence of inefficient shot attempts. The result of 3-point shots when taken being less efficient was expected due to the disparity of individual player skill that exists between high school, collegiate and professional basketball players. Spatial statistics, though hindered by small sample size, revealed clustering of efficient field goal attempts near the basket and low clustering of corner 3-point field goal attempts, another efficient attempt. As a pilot study, the findings of this capstone can be used to illuminate patterns and trends, as well as efficiencies and inefficiencies to improve upon.

      Mason, Jennifer; Nagel, David (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      Military conflict continues to be incredibly destructive even as modern militaries try to avoid collateral damage more than ever. A side effect of conflict is internally displaced persons or IDPs (people forced to leave their home but still within their borders) and refugees which disrupts the civil recovery of an area after the conflict has passed. Understanding how the level and type of conflict affecting areas, and if or when those areas recover is paramount to returning a region to normalcy. In 2014, Mosul, Iraq was invaded and occupied by ISIS displacing an estimated 500,000 people. Mosul was eventually liberated in 2017 by Iraqi Government Forces after some the heaviest fighting of the conflict. This study examines land use change for the region to identify which areas were most effected, and which have recovered. Utilizing Landsat 8 imagery from 2013 to 2021 and conflict data from The Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project (ACLED), the images were classified and compared over time and analyzed with the conflict data to identify changes. The results of this project will be able to help both defense and interior government personnel understand which areas are more effected and correctly proportion critical resources.
    • Analyzing Future Human Exploration Sites in Areas with Hydrated Sulfates on Mars

      Korgaonkar, Yoga; Thomas, Melissa (The University of Arizona., 2022-05-01)
      Human exploration missions to the surface of Mars have been a topic of interest for scientists around the world and determining landing sites for missions such as these is key. A landing site must meet certain requirements including: a large enough area and a smooth surface for a safe landing, the potential for scientific exploration, the presence of resources capable of sustaining a manned mission, etc. In this study, five areas located in different regions of Valles Marineris were analyzed using the aforementioned criteria. These areas were chosen based on data from related literature that shows locations where hydrated sulfates were detected. For each of the five areas, DTMs were found on the HiRISE database and GIS tools were used to measure the area and roughness of flat surfaces and create slope, aspect, and hillshade maps. From these maps, suitability maps were created showing the most ideal landing sites for each area. Based on the statistics of each map, Eos Chasma and Candor Chasma seem to be the most ideal candidate site due to the greater number of suitable landing sites determined by the criteria mentioned above.

      Sánchez-Trigueros, Fernando; Loftus, Pauline (The University of Arizona., 2021-08-19)
      Wildfire in the Southwestern United States is an escalating problem for residents and managers to contend with, particularly for those living and working in the Wildland Urban Interface. Fuel management mitigates the cost of wildfire suppression and protects people and assets. In the Fry Fire District, grants from the Arizona State Department of Forestry and Fire enable collaboration between the district and private landowners in fuel reduction with mechanical thinning and controlled burns. In this study, GIS tools were used to analyze multiple seasonal images from Landsat 8 Surface Reflectance data. The acquired images were corrected for cloud cover and cloud shadow. The change in Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and change in Normalized Burn Ratio were then calculated to assess density and recovery. Managing fuels, particularly in the WUI, can help mitigate the extremity, intensity, suppression cost, and loss of life and property resulting from wildfires.

      Mason, Jennifer; Camacho, Nicholas (The University of Arizona., 2022-05-03)
      The United States has a long history of relying on foreign farm labor to sustain and support its agricultural industry. In 1942, the first agricultural guest worker program was initiated and named the Bracero Program, which implemented the means of temporarily importing workers from Mexico to fill labor shortages in the United States during World War II. In 1952, the Immigration and Nationality Act established the H-2 Non-Immigrant Visa Program, which allowed foreign workers to be admitted into the United States to fill seasonal and temporary employment. The H-2A agricultural worker visa is a guest program that allows employers in the agricultural sector to bring foreign nationals to the United States to fill temporary agricultural jobs. Today, the H-2A program continues to be in high demand and is the best source for legal and reliable farm labor in the United States. This project uses bivariate analysis to explore agricultural demand of H-2A farm workers in vegetables, fruits and tree nut commodities throughout the United States. Bivariate analysis identified Monterey County, California as the largest producer of vegetables and had the second highest demand of H-2A workers in the United States. Maps also revealed, Moore County, North Carolina as both the number one requestor and employer of H-2A workers in the United States with over ten thousand by North Carolina Grower's Association, Inc. This project contributes and further strengthens the reality there is an increasing demand of H-2A workers in agriculture, especially those sectors producing vegetables, fruits and tree nut commodities.
    • The Archaeological and Historical Geospatial Analysis of the Port Chicago Disaster of 1944

      Korgaonkar, Yoga; Kiger, David (The University of Arizona., 2021-12)
      The Port Chicago disaster that occurred on July 17, 1944, is a historically important, albeit infamous event for several reasons. Three hundred and twenty (320) servicemen and civilians, mostly African American, were instantly killed and 390 more were injured from the blast. The events surrounding the explosion highlighted racial injustices and shaped the eventual desegregation of the armed forced shortly after. Ensuing investigations were predominantly of a military nature and occurred before GIS technology became a multidisciplinary approach to analyzing events. Here, a collaboration of historical data obtained and managed by the National Park Service is georeferenced and presented in a manner that tells the Port Chicago story and can be continuously updated and expanded upon. This project seeks to analyze the Port Chicago disaster in two areas: The physical phenomenon of the explosion itself, and the resulting historical/archaeological remnants linked to that explosion over space and time. Features are created and centered on the focal point of the explosion, and have been digitized based on historical maps and imagery. Damage zones were then created to summarize physical impact, such as deaths, injuries, percentage levels of damaged structures and associated costs. Historical imagery, diagrams, personal accounts, and archaeological remnants are then documented and embedded within their respective feature classes. A collaboration of over 100 artifacts, ground level photos, and documents are available to be accessed on ArcGIS Online and can be used to construct web-based mapping applications. This study highlights the integration of history/archaeology with modern GIST mapping and display abilities. It will further aid in explaining the Port Chicago disaster across space and give the user another paradigm from which to view how historical events unfold.
    • Arizona and the Influence Behind Rising Properties Values

      Korgaonkar, Yoga; Legette, Dominic (The University of Arizona., 2022-04-29)
      Over the past decade, Arizona has seen an increase in property values, which in turn has increased the cost of living. Housing unit reports have shown a steady rise of new construction in the most populated cities in Arizona. This study should allow potential homeowners or investors to become aware of the best time to purchase homes or property as the market continues to rise and fall. The study also sheds light on potential root causes for the rising costs of living. Climate change has been a major issue in California, as there have been increases in wildfires over the last decade. Data is used to show the amount of damage caused by wildfires throughout the state. Assessing Arizona and California’s population disparity over the last decade provides fidelity of population to housing unit growth. This data is then compared to the average cost of the housing in the respective counties. The implications of this study, for future homeowners or investors, would be an anticipation in equity losses if the said property is purchased during inflation. Since 2016, the study depicts a steady 1% increase in housing units every year. This may not seem like a significant amount; however, for one county in Arizona it was an increase of 100,000 housing units (as well as a 200,000-population increase) in just five years. The analysis implies a strong correlation between the areas in California affected by wildfires also being the areas with the most population loss. The reported number of Californians leaving these affected areas also correlates to the amount of realty purchased in Arizona. Cities in Arizona share climate similarities as well as boast a lower cost of living, making Arizona an ideal spot for relocating. The total number of population increases are a direct reflection of the most populated counties in Arizona. As the study focuses on the root causes of the inflated prices, the outside influences that are migrating people to Arizona will cause a housing crisis when the economy bounces back.
    • Assessment of Post-Fire Vegetation Recovery in Washington State Using Landsat and Geographical Data

      Sanchez Trigueros, Fernando; Hare, Leah (The University of Arizona., 2020-05)
      Consequences of wildfires often result in the loss or change of vegetation, causing a reduction of biodiversity and an increase in soil erosion. Studies aiming to understand the potential dynamics in vegetation regeneration after a fire can benefit restoration programs by defining probable contributing factors. This report considered environmental variables and their impact on fire recovery for six fires in Washington State over a five-year period. Variables included the differenced normalized burn ratio (dNBR), the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), land cover type, and topological variables. Regression modeling was performed using both Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) and Geographic Weighted Regression (GWR) to determine the best-fit model. Over the five-year period, mixed vegetation showed the highest recovery rate with varied rates for both forested and desert vegetation. OLS regression demonstrated that land cover had high multicollinearity with other variables and land cover factors, thus it was excluded from GWR calculations. The best-fit models revealed a positive relationship with pre-fire NDVI and burn severity for most fire locations, indicating an increase in revegetation based on an increase in burn severity. Topological variable slope had both positive and negative relationships with NDVI. R2 values calculated through GWR were between 0.85 and 0.98. As Washington State is a diverse, widespread area, this study serves as an initial step to understand the potential relationships between fire recovery and the contributing factors. Additional steps should be taken to focus on specific vegetation type and assessing longer recovery time.
    • Auto-Generating Maps Using Open-Source GIS and Python

      Lukinbeal, Chris; McPherson, Mercedes (The University of Arizona., 2017-12-19)
      Fund for the Arts is one of the oldest arts fund in the country. Since its formation in 1949, the organization has raised over 200 million for the community, which includes Kentucky and Southern Indiana. This Master’s project will focus on one of the organization’s programs entitled 5x5. The goal of 5x5 is to expose elementary school students to five art experiences before they finish the fifth grade. Several years’ worth of data has been compiled, including school names, performance names, performance type, number of students served, and total cost, among others. Using a combination of these parameters, maps will be auto-generated using CSV templates. The auto-generated maps will show a variety of data, including the amount of art funding per zip code, per program type, per grade, per art group, per school, and per student. The maps will serve as visual evidence of the program’s progress and will be shared with Fund for the Arts Board of Directors and CEO, internal staff, as well as other community stakeholders such as community liaisons, participating schools, current and potential donors and the Louisville Metro Council. Fund for the Arts is a nonprofit that does not have access to ESRI products. This Master’s project combines cartography and scripting to create a functioning deliverable using open-source GIS software that enables the organization to auto-generate maps at will and forego the need to request maps from the local university once a year.
    • Building a Web Application and Land Navigation Course to Help Develop Military Relevant Informal GIS Education

      Lukinbeal, Chris; Ruff, Alexander (The University of Arizona., 2017-12)
      Throughout history, military officers have relied on maps to provide spatial information and make informed battlefield and other problem-solving decisions. Today’s officers can put even more spatial information at a soldier’s fingertips if they are made aware of the power of geographic information systems and software. This paper makes the argument that an informal education and introduction to the uses of geographic information systems (GIS) during their participation in reserve officer training corps (ROTC) can help provide future officers with a basic understanding on how GIS can impact their ability to solve military relevant problems with these technologies and can aid in their decision making. This project created a web application using python and based on military mapping manuals and defense tools that allow a user to create a model of how quickly the user could be able to move over a given terrain. This web application was given to military officers in ROTC training at the University of Arizona prior to participation in a land navigation exercise to help them plan and prepare their path through the event. Students using the app prior to the exercise were able to see how the information provided by GIS can help them make decisions and times were compared between those that used the tool and those that did not. This tool, and the subsequent exercise provided increased awareness in military applications of GIS for those future military officers and helps inspire them to pursue more information on the technology.
    • Canopy Change Assessment and Water Resources Utilization in the Civano Community, Arizona

      Psillas, Jennifer; Danloe, John; Pan, Yajuan (The University of Arizona., 2016-12)
      The Civano community of Tucson, Arizona, is built for sustainability. Trees and plants are precious resources in the community and balancing human needs and natural resources. The design of rainwater harvesting systems and the usage of reclaimed water inside the community effectively irrigate plants and save drinking water. This project estimates canopy changes over time and explores the effect of water resources on plant growth for developed areas and natural areas, respectively. This project generates land cover classifications for 2007, 2010, and 2015 using supervised classification method and measures canopy cover change over time. Based on City of Tucson Water “harvesting rainwater guide to water-efficient landscaping”, this project discusses if water supply meets plant water demand in the developed areas of the community. Additionally, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data for developed area and natural area over ten years are compared and provide a correlation analysis with water sources. The results show that canopy cover across the entire community decreased from 2007 to 2010, then increased from 2010 to 2015. Water supply in the developed areas is sufficient for plant water demand. In natural areas plant growth changes dramatically as a result of precipitation fluctuation. In addition, it’s proved that 2011 National Land Cover Database (NLCD) tree canopy underestimates canopy cover in the Civano community. The final products not only provide the fundamental canopy cover data for other studies, also serve as a reference of water efficient landscaping within a community.
    • Changes at the Great Sand Dunes National Park

      Mason, Jennifer; Grogan, Andrew; Wade, Joseph (The University of Arizona., 2022-05-05)
      Sand Dune Geomorphology occurs much faster than most geological processes, and is heavily influenced by the small scale weather events and current climatology. Aeolian forces can be difficult to study directly, but they directly affect areas with large amounts of free sediment not restricted by vegetation. The Great Sand Dunes National Park was upgraded from a national monument in 2000, but the dunes themselves are thought to have formed as recently as 18,000 – 400,000 years ago after a large glacial lake receded from the valley. There is even evidence that large amounts of sediment joined the main dunefield 750 years ago due to a severe and prolonged drought. With improvements in technology, it is now possible to look at the dunes with LIDAR, seeing the changes from 2014 to 2021. Using Lidar data, it may be possible to identify possible causes or variables that influenced the changes that occurred to the Great Sand Dunes over the course of 7 years. Large nearby features like the 14,000 foot (4267 meters) Sangre De Cristo Mountains with their effect on the weather, and creating ephemeral streams from snowmelt. This study tests and identifies variables to ascertain whether they influence the dunes, and may help us predict what may happen in the near future, as well as possibly the far future, and the dunes may reveal secrets about how the climate is changing as they are impacted by the climate.

      Mason, Jennifer; Gardner, Nathan (The University of Arizona., 2022-05-02)
      The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 was the beginning of the Public Land Survey System (PLSS) and subdivided the lands of the United States into a rectangular grid system. This grid did not include the 13 original colonies or Texas, but it did cover the remaining current and future lands of the US. In most cases this grid system controls how land is divided regardless of who owns it. While each corner in the PLSS has a unique location and name, there is not a universal system to record and share their monumented locations. Each state and county have been left to decide if they will create a location database and how they would like to achieve that. This project is starting that process for Pima County, Arizona. This was accomplished using a data collection process for both field work and data files, then populating a web map database and displaying that on a dashboard. The dashboard allows viewing and downloads of those points to the public. These are available as tools for those who need to locate PLSS corners for any reason. The locations in this database may not be the most precise and accurate locations or considered “survey” grade. They do give a starting point for anyone needing to find one of these entries, and provide a record, including a timestamp, of what is or was at that location. This information can be used by professionals, the public, and municipalities to increase map accuracy or just find the point.
    • A Comparison of Remote Sensing Indices and a Temporal Study of Cienegas at Cienega Creek from 1984 to 2011 using Multispectral Satellite Imagery

      Wilson, Natalie R. (The University of Arizona., 2014)
      Desert wetlands, in particular those slow moving bodies of water known as cienegas, are important sites for biodiversity in arid landscapes and serve as indicators of hydrological functioning on the landscape-level. One of the most extensive systems of cienegas, historical or extant, in southeastern Arizona lies along Cienega Creek, located southeast of Tucson, Arizona. Satellite imagery analysis is heavily utilized to determine landscape-level trends, but cienegas present a challenge to traditional analysis methods. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the classic measure of vegetation greenness, reacts counter-intuitively to open water and is affected by open ground, both common occurrences in cienega habitats. Additional remote sensing indices have been developed that balance sensitivity to these environmental elements. This research explores these remote sensing indices at Cienega Creek applying one topographic index to current elevation data and five spectral indices to Thematic Mapper imagery from 1984 to 2011. Temporal trends were identified for all spectral indices and all indices were compared for suitability in cienega habitats. Temporal trends were analyzed for spatial clustering and spatial trends identified. The Normalized Difference Infrared Index utilizing Landsat Thematic Mapper band 5 outperformed other indices at differentiating between cienega, riparian, and upland habitats and is more suitable than NDVI for analyzing cienega habitats in such circumstances.
    • A Comprehensive Study of Forest Health and Structure Following the West Fork Fire Complex in Southwest Colorado through Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR)

      Sanchez Trigueros, Fernando; Rodriguez, Michael (The University of Arizona., 2021-05)
      In June 2013, southwest Colorado faced one of the largest wildfires in state history, the West Fork Fire Complex. Being composed of three separate fires (Papoose, West Fork, and Windy Pass), the wildfire burned approximately 110,000 acres within the Rio Grande National Forest. This project aims to understand how the West Fork Fire affected forest structure and recovery, and measures these impacts using Landsat 8 imagery to analyze NDVI and NBR. NDVI was calculated to understand impacts to vegetation, while NBR was calculated to understand overall burn severities. Specific measurements of NDVI and NBR values were collected across 30 designated control points within each set of imagery. NDVI results showed a 63% decrease in control point values from June to August 2013, indicating immediate impacts to forest structure. The average values fell from greater than 0.20 to less than 0.10, classifying these once sparsely covered lands into areas of barren rock or sand. NBR values saw a decrease of 309% over the same period. ΔNBR values averaged 0.33 which indicated moderate to low severity burns throughout the landscape while ΔNDVI averaged 0.12. NDVI found a 123% increase in July 2016 compared with the 2014 data, and NBR detected a 114% increase. Both analyses presented higher values in 2016 compared with their 2013 data, showing evidence of forest recovery. The results indicated the West Fork Complex had a moderate to low impact. Additionally, results demonstrated how NDVI and NBR helped to classify the severity of wildfires, vegetation health, and how these methods can be reproduced.
    • Creating a Secure Data Architecture and Digital Platform for the Borderlands Observatory Collaborative

      Lukinbeal, Chris; Bristol, Warren (The University of Arizona., 2021-05-10)
      The Borderlands Observatory Collaborative is a group of advocates, NGOs, and academics that want to promote ethical, horizontal research on border militarization. This collaboration created a data architecture and digital platform for NGOs, advocacy groups, and academics to communicate their information to the public. ArcGIS Hub provided an interface to create a user-friendly platform to store, mix and display spatial and other information and keep data secure and private for collaborators. It takes untold sums of human effort, labor, technical know-how, people power, and geospatial tools to create datasets used in the region, including humanitarian, social, and environmental, as well as ongoing monitoring of changing issues. The purpose of this Master Project is to detail the creation of this Hub site and one case study from the project on mapping the construction, litigation, and environmental policies associated with Trump and Bush era border walls. The case study focuses on the collaborative work performed with The Sierra Club utilizing ArcGIS Hub and AGOL tools. This study utilizes Public Participation GIS (PPGIS) feedback from collaborative members to guide the creation of a secure data architecture. This study explains the techniques used from PPGIS feedback to create a Hub and applies PPGIS to construct a border wall AGOL Dashboard. The collaboration in this study is ongoing, but a noted finding from this PPGIS experience was with information that is highly sensitive, personal, and political, the collaborative tended to prefer less centralization and a diffused data sharing platform and power structure for ethical reasons.
    • Designing an ArcGIS Survey123 Form to be Used with Field Maps to Conduct Post-Storm Damage Assessments

      Korgaonkar, Yoga; Adams, Matt (The University of Arizona., 2022-04-27)
      Hurricanes are an annual risk to most counties in Florida, and Flagler County is no exception. A critical aspect of post-hurricane response is conducting a preliminary damage assessment in order to gain access to Federal Emergency Management Agency funds. In the past, Flagler County has relied on outside consultants in order to complete the calculations on the back end of the preliminary damage assessment. This study aims to design a preliminary damage assessment solution that is managed completely in-house in order to mitigate the reliance on a consulting firm in the time of a disaster. This solution consists of a Field Map for assessors to utilize in the field, a Survey123 form for completing the damage assessment in the field, Dashboards to monitor the progress of the damage assessment, and reports to be utilized by incident command and other stakeholders. The Survey123 form includes additional calculations for estimating the damage cost, amount of structural debris, and amount of vegetative debris. This set of Damage Assessment tools helps to decrease dependence on outside consultants, saves Flagler County money on consulting fees, and ensures that the tools are be ready to use when a disaster strikes.

      Mason, Jennifer; Morris, Jacob (The University of Arizona., 2022-05-02)
      Locating and identification of plant stress and diseases plays a major role in plant conservation and human safety concerns relating to falling hazards and reduction in fire blocks between structures in medium sized population centers. Overall flora heath can be indicated by visual observations of the chlorophyll and other pigments in the leaves. As outside interference with the plants ability to naturally produce the required nutrients, such as environmental and pathological interference, the visible pigmentation change. In this study, pigment variation is evaluated and analyzed by machine learning methods including image classification for the evaluation of health in deciduous trees. By utilizing multispectral imagery this study compares wavelength values for identified affected individuals showing visual symptoms to located other affected individuals both showing symptomatic and non-symptomatic individuals. Data analysis was conducted utilizing a trained supervised classification, support vector machines and K nearest neighbor method to determine which methods was most precise in identifying affected pixels for fast-tracking management evaluations for resource managers. The overall classification accuracy of targeted, healthy, fields, and urban was relatively good, with kappa values ranging from 0.66 to 0.75 and overall accuracy ranging from 70%to 83%. Support vector machines accuracy of 82.13% with a kappa coefficient of 0.74 at a 750 point accuracy assessment making it the best method of the two for detections of symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals.
    • Determining Opportunity: The Need for Forming a Families Opportunity Index

      Sanchez Trigueros, Fernando; Johnson, Erika (The University of Arizona., 2021-08-14)
      The relationship between families and communities are apparent in the opportunity available to the family unit. How a family fares in a community can have lasting effects, both generational and to the community that they are a part of. Measuring opportunity through an index is best practice because of its multi-dimensional aspect, however, no index exists when evaluating the opportunity of families. The nearest index to providing some indication is the Opportunity Index, but it also fails to capture the complexities that families contend with. Using the framework from the Opportunity Index, along with adding other markers of family opportunity based on research, a Families Opportunity Index was created to better quantify the opportunity of families for the counties of California. The new Families Opportunity Index includes added indicators for the Economy Dimension of the Index. By modifying the Economy Dimension to focus on data that would capture indicators that effect the most vulnerable of families, single parent families, and recently separated or divorced families, we can capture a more realistic picture of a family’s opportunity for each California county. The expectation is that the Families Opportunity Index will be used to inform better public policy for Families.
    • Distribution of Oil and Gas Well Data Through a Web Based Map Application

      Richards, Kenneth T. (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      The Arizona Oil and Gas Commission in conjunction with the Arizona Geological Survey have collected a large amount of data for the oil and gas wells in the State of Arizona. The data covers over 1,000 wells that were drilled from the 1940s to present. This data includes copies of permits, location information, scanned copies of well logs and digitized versions of the well logs in .las file format. These files have been difficult to distribute efficiently because of an unfriendly web user interface. The purpose of this project is to give the Arizona Geological Survey a way to distribute the oil and gas well data through an effective web application. The web application will leverage existing web services at the Arizona Geological Survey. To create this map I used the Esri JavaScript API. In this application the users can select multiple wells by clicking and dragging over the well heads they want. This will then display the metadata in a grid along with hyperlinks to the available files for those wells. This data will be primarily used by companies involved with carbon sequestration or others seeking information for geological exploration.