• Exploring 3D Visualization Techniques Using Geographic Information Systems Technology at the University of Arizona

      Lukinbeal, Chris; Wadsworth, James (The University of Arizona., 2019-12-11)
      As computers and geographic information systems (GIS) technology improves, more advanced visualization and analysis becomes possible. One area of GIS technology that is seeing improvement is the development of 3D GIS data. The primary focus of this project was to explore three types of building models that can be created from varying quality data and used by a wide variety of users. Using ESRI software, the goal was to provide guidance for GIS users to develop high quality 3D data relevant to their specific needs. Examples of created 3D products are photorealistic-textured buildings, thematically symbolized buildings, and 3D renderings designed for interior navigation. The resulting data were compiled into an interactive web application for visualization and making comparisons between methodologies. All methods involved using 2D building footprint source data and leveraging the attributes and geometry to create 3D structures. These models provide viewers with additional information that would be impossible to convey in two dimensions, such as viewing a route that occupies the same space on different floors of a building, like navigating between offices or classrooms. Interior navigation is one of many examples of an application that can be built upon the fundamental 3D data examined in this project. Additionally, institutions or organizations seeking to develop their first 3D data from 2D data could potentially use the findings of this project to inform their decisions and start supporting the advancement of 3D GIS at a faster rate than if they were to attempt to develop these data independently.
    • Feature Film Residential Use and Aspirational Depictions of People within Los Angeles, California

      Lukinbeal, Chris; Grantham, Laura (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Feature films and other visual media are well known for not showing realistic portrayals of how people live but rather for depicting an aspirational reality in which the way people are portrayed to live does not match with their social-economic circumstances. This project seeks to probe this phenomenon by examining residential locations used for feature film productions between 2008 and 2011 in Los Angeles County. This project uses GIS analyses and Business Analyst to answer the following question: What residential locations are most prominently depicted in the Greater Los Angeles region in feature films in 2008-2011? More specifically I focus in on which neighborhoods, and homes in those neighborhoods, are used most frequently for feature film production. The project examines the socio-demographic characteristics of the neighborhoods and homes most frequently used in the greater LA area to find what could be called a Hollywood aspirational view of Los Angeles: what it is, where is it located, and what are the predominate socio-demographic makeup of those regions predominantly portrayed.
    • Finding The Tongva

      Korgaonkar, Yoga; Gonzales, Alexander (The University of Arizona., 2022-05-01)
      Finding The Tongva is focused on Locating sites of Tongva influence throughout the county of Los Angeles. The county area was once the homeland of the Tongva Tribe who once had approximately 100 villages throughout Southern California. The Tongva tribe is not well known because the tribe does not have any reservations and most of the land is covered by urban and suburban construction. This project is focused on finding sites of significant Tongva influence to share with the public. The first part of the project was to find various websites that can provide locations and addresses to be converted into point features. These point features are separated into feature layers based on their attributes: Museums, People, Arts, and Monuments. The results show that there are around 100 places of Tongva sites including arts, monuments, museums, and organizations that are dedicated to preserving Tongva culture. The map also includes polygon features such as county boundaries and survey areas to show scale and general area. These results are then uploaded to ArcGIS Online to create a Web Application. This Web Application allows the public to visualize the data and allows for easy user interaction. The widgets allow the public to locate, modify, print, and search for routes on the map. The goal of this project is to preserve the Tongva’s history and to teach the public about the tribe’s value as a culture.
    • Flood Risk Assessment of the Greater St George, Utah Area Based on Land Cover/Land Use and Watersheds

      Sánchez-Trigueros, Fernando; Moertle-Litson, Jasmine (The University of Arizona., 2021-08)
      The Greater St George area in Southern Utah is a hot spot for development. The gradual increase in population size has caused a large growth in construction. In 2018, a large storm hit the area and caused massive flooding in Washington, Utah. This was caused by new construction blocking a natural floodplain. This caused a diversion of the waters into the people’s homes below. The point of this project is to identify the changes in the land from the year of 2008 to 2018 along with displaying the natural water passages in the area. The areas that are overlapped with the flood zones that have been developed on, are at a potential risk of dealing with major flood damage. Using the unsupervised and supervised classification systems on ArcMap along with a watershed analysis, the flood hazard zones information will be displayed within the area. The unsupervised and supervised data signifies that the major flood zones are now encountering more developed areas. This indicates that if more work isn’t done to prevent flooding, then more homes are susceptible to damage. Census data also indicates the communities with the most flooding risk are the low income and high minority communities. The impact of developing the area to support the growing population is ultimately having to cost the city and the citizens more money. The developers need to make sure they examine the natural water ways and avoid causing more flood damage to the city.
    • The Florida Panther: Challenges to Keep This Endangered Species Moving Forward

      Korgaonkar, Yoga; Munoz, Milton (The University of Arizona., 2021-12-13)
      The endangered Florida panther (puma concolor coryi) continues to face challenges for expansion in the southern part of Florida. For decades, the Florida panther existence has been threatened by several factors such as genetic neurological conditions, and habitat displacement. With the rapidly growing population of Southwest Florida, the biggest danger for survival for the Florida panther today is habitat loss, and the proximity to busy roads and highways. The goal of this project is to display current Florida panther geographical range, areas with high indexes of vehicular mortality, and areas suitable for potential growth. Several datasets were obtained and manipulated to produce maps showing panther radio-collared telemetry readings, mortality records, and Florida land use over the years. A similar assessment was done to the Florida black bear, a species facing similar habitat issues in the Southwest Florida region. A habitat suitability model was done to measure potential areas for recovery after decades of extinction danger. Habitat suitability models are essential in the planning and development of wildlife corridors. The findings of this study could be used for Florida panther conservation projects, and wildlife protecting plans to maintain areas suitable for wildlife proliferation.
    • Geologic Map of Arizona

      Korgaonkar, Yoga; Camp, Michael (The University of Arizona., 2022-04)
      The mission of the Arizona Geological Survey is to provide geologic information to enhance public understanding of the state's geologic character, geologic hazards and limitations, and mineral resources. The maps published by the Arizona Geologic Survey are used by the public and state authorities to assess natural hazards, evaluate construction suitability, and discover mineral and energy resources. The Arizona Geological Survey has been providing geology maps for more than one-hundred years, with its first state-wide geologic map of Arizona published in 1924. The Arizona Geological Survey provides an interactive geologic map of Arizona online, but the website has not been updated in over eight years. The goal of this project is to update the data and software behind the geologic map of Arizona using modern software and software development practices. The final product uses open-source software including Leaflet.js and can be used as a reference for creating future online maps.
    • Geospatial Web-Mapping and Application Development for the Southeast Arizona Sustainable Recreation Strategy

      Little, Jessica (The University of Arizona., 2016-12-14)
      Within the last decade, the United States Forest Service (USFS) has initiated a nation-wide project of Sustainable Recreation as a response to the decreasing amount of resources available to maintain the current recreation infrastructure, including trails, campgrounds, etc. These unmaintained trails and facilities pose a potential safety threat to users and the landscape in which they reside. This smaller pilot project, as part of the Southeast Arizona Sustainable Recreation Strategy, is the second pilot project in the Southwest Region of the USFS aimed at growing the Sustainable Recreation initiative. The main goal of this project is to create the framework for an inter-agency web application of recreation opportunities in Southeast Arizona, with an aim to increase communication between land management agencies, and to increase public participation and conservation of public lands. To achieve this, recreation data were gathered from multiple participating agencies and merged into a new schema in order to provide useful attribute information. This schema was then uploaded to ArcGIS Online and saved as a web map for internal, agency use. In addition, a public-facing web application and corresponding Story Map were also created. The result better portrays the Sustainable Recreation initiative and provides a one-stop-shop of useful recreation information and links for users who wish to become more involved. This project provides the groundwork for which more data from additional agencies and areas can be added and the participation of both land management agencies and the general public can grow.
    • GIS Analysis of the Bighorn Fire Evacuation Orders

      Korgaonkar, Yoga; Camp, Katrina (The University of Arizona., 2022-05-03)
      The Bighorn Fire of 2020 burned 119,978 acres of the Santa Catalina Mountains and threatened urban interface five days into a forty-nine-day burn. Arizona’s Ready, Set, Go! emergency response evacuation plan was activated to ensure the safety of those residing within the danger zone of the wildfire. Evacuation zones were created specifically for this natural disaster which proved confusing for many residents attempting to determine their location in conjunction with the wildfire. This historical spatial analysis depicts the evacuation orders as they were initiated by the Pima County Office of Emergency Management. For each of the twenty-five Pima County evacuation orders initiated during the Bighorn Fire, ArcGIS Pro was used to map each zone by evacuation order and the correlating evacuation status (Ready, Set, Go!). The evacuation meeting point, as well as the animal sheltering location, have been digitized on each map displaying the distance between the evacuation zones and the meeting points. An ArcGIS StoryMap has been created to narrate the events of the Bighorn Fire. An interactive evacuation map was developed using ArcGIS Web App Builder. Users can enter their address and choose a point on the map to determine the distance, route, and length of time from their house to a safe point outside of the evacuation zones. This project will improve understanding of the events that occurred during this natural disaster and the emergency responses used to ensure the safety of citizens near the urban interface. Additionally, it can be used as a learning tool to improve wildfire evacuation communication with the community as well as community safety education.
    • A Habitat Suitability Analysis of Texas Horned Lizards in Texas and New Mexico

      Sanchez Trigueros, Fernando; Piehler, Reid (The University of Arizona., 2021-05)
      The Texas Horned Lizard (Phrynosoma cornutum) is a state-protected lizard native to the American Southwest. To rebuild the Texas Horned Lizard population, they are bred in captivity and released into the wild. Identifying factors that impact habitat suitability is vital to finding the proper areas for release and reintroduction. Environmental and human factors were examined in Texas and New Mexico counties native to the Texas Horned Lizard, as well as counties without known sightings, to determine which factors most impact habitat suitability. Four statistical and geospatial software packages were used to map, analyze, and evaluate 24 potential variables and it was discovered that elevation, road density, natural gas pipeline density, seasonal rainfall, land use category, and proximity to Red Harvester Ants are all statistically significant to Texas Horned Lizard habitat suitability at a 95% confidence level. Texas Horned Lizards are most prevalent in counties with low elevation, high percentage of open water or snow, low precipitation levels, and native habitats for Red Harvester Ants. Horned Lizards are also less prevalent where road density or natural gas pipeline density is high. No significant difference was detected in habitat suitability relative to Imported Fire Ants as suggested in previous studies. To protect viable environments for Texas Horned Lizard reintroduction, pipeline and road construction should be limited in the most suitable regions: eastern and southern New Mexico, the southern Gulf Coast, the Texas Panhandle, Edwards Plateau, and along the Rio Grande.
    • High Speed / Commuter Rail Suitability Analysis For Central And Southern Arizona

      Deveney, Matthew R. (The University of Arizona., 2015)
      Current transportation methods within the Central Arizona region revolve primarily around automobiles. In order for the region to become more economically resilient and environmentally sustainable, alternative transportation methods must be considered. One such alternative that has shown great promise in other regions of the United States is rail transport. Rail transport, including commuter rail or high speed rail, has proven to not only be an effective alternative to automobile transport, but also as a more environmentally sustainable transportation option. The I-11 Super Corridor study, a part of the University of Arizona’s Sustainable City Project 2014, applied next generation urban planning design ideas to the planned Interstate 11 corridor, a major transportation artery that will connect Mexico and Canada. This study inspired this project’s focus on the concept of identifying suitable routes for new transportation infrastructure within the central and southern Arizona regions. Through the incorporation of commuter or high speed rail within central and southern Arizona, a more resilient regional economy and environment can be created. The previous I-11 Super Corridor study presented the incorporation of different regional factors, including population density and economic statistics, to determine suitable routes for future transportation corridors. This project integrates the utilization of specific local and regional data and advanced GIS analysis to determine suitable routes for new rail transport corridors within Maricopa, Pinal and Pima Counties.
    • Identifying Housing Patterns in Pima County, Arizona Using the DEYA Affordability Index and Geospatial Analysis

      Nevarez Martinez, Deyanira (The University of Arizona., 2015)
      When the Fair Housing Act of 1968 was passed 47 years ago, the United States was in the midst of the civil rights movement and fair housing was identified as a pillar of equality. While, progress has been made, there is much work that needs to be done in order to achieve integration. As a country, the United States is a highly segregated country. It is important to understand the factors that contribute to this and it is important to understand the relationships that exists between them in order to attempt to solve the problem. While the legal barriers to integration have been lifted choices continue to be limited to families of color that lack the resources to live in desirable neighborhoods. The ultimate goal of this study is to examine the relationship between the impact of individual indicators and housing patterns in the greater Tucson/Pima county region. An affordability index, the DEYA index, was created to determine where affordability is at its highest. The index includes different weights for foreclosure, Pima County spending on affordable housing, the existence of Pima County general obligations bond affordable housing projects, land value and inclusion in the community land trust. Once this was determined a regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between affordability and individual factors that may be affecting integration. The indicators used were broken down into 3 categories: the categories were education, housing and neighborhoods and employment and economic health.
    • Identifying Opportunities for Community Solar: A Study of Maricopa and Pinal Counties

      Francis, Karol (The University of Arizona., 2016)
      Photovoltaic (PV) solar electricity generation has the potential to reduce the demand for more traditional fossil and nuclear power generation. Community PV solar installations allow energy users to share the electricity generated by these plants. Optimal siting of community solar installations will allow for maximum electricity generation while avoiding environmental conflicts, as well as, minimizing construction costs. This study identifies opportunities for community solar plants in Maricopa and Pinal Counties, Arizona, of ¼-acre in size. Input parameters fall into economic, physical, and environmental categories. Each of the input parameters were classified from 1 (not suitable) to 9 (highly suitable). Next, the classified rasters in each category were weighed according to importance, and Esri’s Weighted Sum tool was used to generate a combined raster for the category. The three resulting environmental, economic, and physical characteristic rasters were weighed again, and the Weighted Sum tool was used to generate a raster of community solar suitability scores. Next, a mask of locations inappropriate for community-scale solar development was created, including lakes, rivers, streams, and residential rooftops, which are too small to accommodate ¼-acre community solar installations. The masked areas were removed from the suitability raster, and the suitability raster was reclassified using standard deviations to generate a preference map with values ranging from 1 (low preference) to 3 (high preference). The model output reveals 68 percent of the study area is of medium or high preference for community solar installations. Maricopa and Pinal counties provide many opportunities for community solar installations.
    • The Inequitable Distribution of the Urban Heat Island in Dallas County, TX

      Korgaonkar, Yoga; Segovia, Isaias (The University of Arizona., 2021-12-16)
      The Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect is a phenomenon where an urban area has a higher Land Surface Temperature (LST) than surrounding rural areas due to human activities. This phenomenon is caused by the increasing urbanization and the removal of green vegetation. The combination of urbanization and climate change has intensified the UHI within urban areas. Certain urban areas can see slightly higher UHI temperatures than other urban areas due to certain demographic, socioeconomic, and land-use factors. This study sought to see how the UHI effect is being distributed within Dallas County, TX. Dallas County has the 8th largest city in the United States which is the city of Dallas. The City of Dallas was one of the cities within the United States that was redlined by the US government. Redlining was the practice that was used to bar minorities from moving into predominantly white communities and obtaining financial resources. This study used data from the Landsat 8 satellite to determine the UHI within Dallas County and how it is being distributed within certain demographic, socioeconomic, land-use, and historical practices. The assessment was done at the census tract level to determine if tracts with higher UHI had differences in the covariates. Thru the assessment, predominantly White areas, with a high median household income, and have areas graded by the Home Owner Loan Corporation (HOLC) as “Best” or “Still Desirable” had a lower UHI temperature. While areas that are predominantly Black or Hispanic with a high poverty rate, a large percentage of areas covered by impervious surfaces, and have areas graded by HOLC as “Definitely Declining” or “Hazardous” have a higher UHI temperature.
    • An Introduction to Identifying Nonpoint Sources of Water Pollution Using a Modified Land Use Conflict Analysis Identification Strategy (LUCIS) Model, Non-point Source Identification Strategy: NPSIS

      Cziesch, Jarrett (The University of Arizona., 2015)
      This paper examines the Non-Point Source Identification Strategy (NPSIS); a modification of the Land Use Conflict Identification Strategy (LUCIS): NPSIS is a raster model useful for identifying non-point sources of water pollution from three known contributors (agriculture, domestic, and natural background). By using a standard operating procedure, developers are able to create standardized datasets useful for identifying non-point sources of water pollution throughout the contiguous United States. The NPSIS model process requires the use of three “non-point source water pollution” contributors. A contributor is termed as a Non-Point Category (NPC) that contains collective elements (i.e. nutrient applications for agricultural purposes and urban runoff from highly developed areas). Using a survey, water resource professionals familiar with chosen study areas rank each NPC element according to potential impact to water quality. Following the survey, raster datasets that represent each NPC and impact to water quality are created using a lowest to highest (“1-9”) ordinal rank system derived from survey results after which each dataset is normalized using a (“1-3”) ordinal rank. Finally, the normalized NPC datasets are combined into one final model useful for identifying each dominant NPC by rank and location within a specified USGS watershed. In conclusion, the modifications to the LUCIS method yields results beneficial for identifying non-point source loads of water pollution.
    • Investigating Vulnerable Populations Inhabiting Sea Level Rise Resilient Geography in Miami, FL

      Korgaonkar, Yoga; Pachito, Samuel (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      Sea level rise (SLR) in Miami demands attention from policymakers to consider environmental benefits such as higher elevation as potential disadvantages when possessed by vulnerable populations. Without examining higher elevation landscapes, certain demographic features within historically segregated neighborhoods risk unfair exposure to climate gentrification. To find communities most affected by SLR per select neighborhood and census tract, ArcGIS Pro was used to create bathtub models from USGS digital elevation models, and polygons containing American Community Survey census data, which were spatially joined to illustrate those affected by SLR per half meter interval. Finding that while three of the four contemporary neighborhoods retain predominate racial and ethnic character of each respective historical community, 25.6% of the total population were in poverty, and 2.8% were 85 and older. Little Havana (92.8% Hispanic & Latino) was most affected by SLR in area and by population count. The area lost per census tract across all SLR intervals ranged from 0% - 96%, with the most resilient census tract found in Little Haiti with < 1.5% area lost at 3.0 m of SLR. This study elucidates the demographic details of higher elevation locations possessing varying degrees of resilience but that are at risk to climate gentrification.
    • LAND USE EFFECTS ON URBAN HEAT ISLANDS IN MARICOPA COUNTY

      Mason, Jennifer; Bollinger, Kyle (The University of Arizona., 2022-05-02)
      Maricopa County of Arizona is the 4th most populous county in the US, growing over 20% in population between 2010 and 2020. The Urban Heat Island (UHI) phenomenon in the county has increased alongside. The continued growth of urban and suburban structures, roads, and vegetation removal have created a heating effect near the ground that can be measured by the Land Surface Temperature (LST). By comparing Landsat-8 Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) data the LST and thus UHI can be analyzed to better understand the long-term costs associated with urbanization. This effect is commonly associated with the removal of vegetation and using low reflective building and paving materials which can disproportionally influence the surface temperatures and thus heat in the area. Due to the sparse desert vegetation of Maricopa County, one would suspect that the newly developed areas may not be much warmer but due to the nature of the built materials that can absorb and release more energy after the sun sets than typical Arizona dirt. However, newly planted, and harvested farmland had the largest mean LST shifts within the study period contributing to the UHI problem even though farming occurs in rural areas. The urban space needs additional considerations and model variables that county officials could consider. Using an exploratory regression with an average land use per American Community Survey census tract and a generalized linear regression, results show which areas might exacerbate UHI issues so that the associated costs can be considered as part of future planning.
    • Las Vegas Metropolitan Area Urban Sprawl Assessment Using Shannon's Entropy

      Mason, Jennifer; Stuht, Casey M (The University of Arizona., 2022-05-03)
      A population center’s growth, known as urbanization, can pressure delicate environments and place strain on a region’s natural resources. Remote sensing combined with Geographic Information Systems can analyze and map the phenomenon of urban sprawl. This study quantifies growth within the Las Vegas, Nevada urban boundary using the aforementioned tools and Shannon’s Entropy method for 2000 and 2020. Shannon’s Entropy measures urban morphology, calculating compactness and dispersion of binary categorization, in this case, ‘developed’ and ‘undeveloped’ land cover. Eighteen multi-ring buffers were placed around Las Vegas City Hall at 1-mile intervals and found entropy values of 1.10 and 1.15 respectively. In comparison for the same years mentioned, five multi-ring buffers were set around the study area’s three main highways at 1-mile intervals and found entropy values of .608 and .628 respectively. All entropy values using the multi-ring buffer method were > 50% of log(n) for each dataset, meaning that the ‘developed’ land cover spatial variable is evenly dispersed across the study area with compactness or clustering of the ‘developed’ class found within each buffer zone. Temporally, over the 20-year period, the dispersion of development continued, with an increase in entropy values. Further, a geographic quadrant assessment revealed that the greatest land cover change-over from ‘undeveloped’ to ‘developed’ occurred in the northwestern and southwestern portions of the study area. This exercise provides a framework for developing municipalities that seek a cost effective, accessible, and expeditious method to better recognize sprawl patterns with the aim of correcting inefficient land and resource management.
    • Migration Centers of Virginia

      Korgaonkar, Yoga; Reyes, Neil (The University of Arizona., 2022-04-28)
      As the foreign-born population continues to grow in the United States, analyzing migration factors is crucial for continued growth. Immigration can be integral to the overall economy of an area as it leads to an increase of workers, business owners, taxpayers, and consumers. Virginia, specifically the Northern Virginia metropolitan region, is prime example of this correlation between a high foreign-born population and a bolstering economy. To ensure the large foreign-born population is maintained in Virginia, this study focuses on the significance and causes of migration. Several socioeconomic demographics were examined through regression and suitability analyses to understand the relationship between immigrants and an economy and migration. Based on the knowledge of push and pull migration factors, various demographics were chosen to represent these factors. The regression analysis assessed the relationship between the high foreign-born population and economic demographics, while the location suitability analysis mapped potential sites for immigration based on established migration criteria. The regression analysis proved an overall positive relationship between a large-foreign born population and an area’s overall economy, highlighting the importance of migration. The location suitability analysis demonstrated the draw, in conjunction with current immigrant population demographics, to those large urban centers with higher levels of socioeconomic advancement. The final cartographic products will demonstrate the importance of immigration to stimulate an area’s economy and produce recommendations for migration centers.
    • Modeling the Hillside Development Overlay Zone

      Psillas, Jennifer; Avis, Jack; Jackson, Chloe (The University of Arizona., 2016-12)
      Sustainable urban growth can be achieved in part by increasing density through infill development. Done right, infill development encourages already developed areas to become more diverse and livable, while limiting urban sprawl and all the public health, environmental, and infrastructure problems that accompany it. In Pima County’s 2015 update to the Comprehensive Plan, infill development is identified as a goal for land use policy. This study utilizes a Python script to build a model of the Hillside Development Overlay Zone (HDZ) to aid in removing zoning barriers to this goal. This a) improves the permitting process; b) encourages purchase of parcels outside of hillside areas and; c) encourages innovative design on hillside areas. The visualization is available on Pima County’s MapGuide website, allowing developers to make informed decisions about purchasing, permitting, and designing on HDZ parcels. In addition, this study uses a Kernel Density analysis to suggest areas where HDZ can be removed, without losing protection for mountainous areas. These suggestions are submitted to Pima County Development Services.
    • Monitoring urban land-use trends using remote sensed imagery and GIS for the Tucson, Arizona metropolitan region

      Danloe, John; Labadie, Philippe-Luis; Psillas, Jen; Lukinbeal, Chris (The University of Arizona., 2016-12-18)
      This project demonstrates the usefulness of using remotely sensed imagery in conjunction with GIS for urban studies. Utilizing 1-meter high-resolution imagery and GIS, this project provides land-cover change statistics and spatial variables describing new urban development. Statistics of land-cover change were used to quantify the amount of new urban development in acreage. The project then employed a global logistic regression to determine the significant topographic variables influencing the new urban development. The project focused on urban growth from 1998 to 2010 for the Greater Tucson Metropolitan Region. These methods provide accurate and useful information for quantifying urban growth.