• Identifying Housing Patterns in Pima County, Arizona Using the DEYA Affordability Index and Geospatial Analysis

      Nevarez Martinez, Deyanira (The University of Arizona., 2015)
      When the Fair Housing Act of 1968 was passed 47 years ago, the United States was in the midst of the civil rights movement and fair housing was identified as a pillar of equality. While, progress has been made, there is much work that needs to be done in order to achieve integration. As a country, the United States is a highly segregated country. It is important to understand the factors that contribute to this and it is important to understand the relationships that exists between them in order to attempt to solve the problem. While the legal barriers to integration have been lifted choices continue to be limited to families of color that lack the resources to live in desirable neighborhoods. The ultimate goal of this study is to examine the relationship between the impact of individual indicators and housing patterns in the greater Tucson/Pima county region. An affordability index, the DEYA index, was created to determine where affordability is at its highest. The index includes different weights for foreclosure, Pima County spending on affordable housing, the existence of Pima County general obligations bond affordable housing projects, land value and inclusion in the community land trust. Once this was determined a regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between affordability and individual factors that may be affecting integration. The indicators used were broken down into 3 categories: the categories were education, housing and neighborhoods and employment and economic health.
    • Identifying Opportunities for Community Solar: A Study of Maricopa and Pinal Counties

      Francis, Karol (The University of Arizona., 2016)
      Photovoltaic (PV) solar electricity generation has the potential to reduce the demand for more traditional fossil and nuclear power generation. Community PV solar installations allow energy users to share the electricity generated by these plants. Optimal siting of community solar installations will allow for maximum electricity generation while avoiding environmental conflicts, as well as, minimizing construction costs. This study identifies opportunities for community solar plants in Maricopa and Pinal Counties, Arizona, of ¼-acre in size. Input parameters fall into economic, physical, and environmental categories. Each of the input parameters were classified from 1 (not suitable) to 9 (highly suitable). Next, the classified rasters in each category were weighed according to importance, and Esri’s Weighted Sum tool was used to generate a combined raster for the category. The three resulting environmental, economic, and physical characteristic rasters were weighed again, and the Weighted Sum tool was used to generate a raster of community solar suitability scores. Next, a mask of locations inappropriate for community-scale solar development was created, including lakes, rivers, streams, and residential rooftops, which are too small to accommodate ¼-acre community solar installations. The masked areas were removed from the suitability raster, and the suitability raster was reclassified using standard deviations to generate a preference map with values ranging from 1 (low preference) to 3 (high preference). The model output reveals 68 percent of the study area is of medium or high preference for community solar installations. Maricopa and Pinal counties provide many opportunities for community solar installations.
    • The Inequitable Distribution of the Urban Heat Island in Dallas County, TX

      Korgaonkar, Yoga; Segovia, Isaias (The University of Arizona., 2021-12-16)
      The Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect is a phenomenon where an urban area has a higher Land Surface Temperature (LST) than surrounding rural areas due to human activities. This phenomenon is caused by the increasing urbanization and the removal of green vegetation. The combination of urbanization and climate change has intensified the UHI within urban areas. Certain urban areas can see slightly higher UHI temperatures than other urban areas due to certain demographic, socioeconomic, and land-use factors. This study sought to see how the UHI effect is being distributed within Dallas County, TX. Dallas County has the 8th largest city in the United States which is the city of Dallas. The City of Dallas was one of the cities within the United States that was redlined by the US government. Redlining was the practice that was used to bar minorities from moving into predominantly white communities and obtaining financial resources. This study used data from the Landsat 8 satellite to determine the UHI within Dallas County and how it is being distributed within certain demographic, socioeconomic, land-use, and historical practices. The assessment was done at the census tract level to determine if tracts with higher UHI had differences in the covariates. Thru the assessment, predominantly White areas, with a high median household income, and have areas graded by the Home Owner Loan Corporation (HOLC) as “Best” or “Still Desirable” had a lower UHI temperature. While areas that are predominantly Black or Hispanic with a high poverty rate, a large percentage of areas covered by impervious surfaces, and have areas graded by HOLC as “Definitely Declining” or “Hazardous” have a higher UHI temperature.
    • An Introduction to Identifying Nonpoint Sources of Water Pollution Using a Modified Land Use Conflict Analysis Identification Strategy (LUCIS) Model, Non-point Source Identification Strategy: NPSIS

      Cziesch, Jarrett (The University of Arizona., 2015)
      This paper examines the Non-Point Source Identification Strategy (NPSIS); a modification of the Land Use Conflict Identification Strategy (LUCIS): NPSIS is a raster model useful for identifying non-point sources of water pollution from three known contributors (agriculture, domestic, and natural background). By using a standard operating procedure, developers are able to create standardized datasets useful for identifying non-point sources of water pollution throughout the contiguous United States. The NPSIS model process requires the use of three “non-point source water pollution” contributors. A contributor is termed as a Non-Point Category (NPC) that contains collective elements (i.e. nutrient applications for agricultural purposes and urban runoff from highly developed areas). Using a survey, water resource professionals familiar with chosen study areas rank each NPC element according to potential impact to water quality. Following the survey, raster datasets that represent each NPC and impact to water quality are created using a lowest to highest (“1-9”) ordinal rank system derived from survey results after which each dataset is normalized using a (“1-3”) ordinal rank. Finally, the normalized NPC datasets are combined into one final model useful for identifying each dominant NPC by rank and location within a specified USGS watershed. In conclusion, the modifications to the LUCIS method yields results beneficial for identifying non-point source loads of water pollution.
    • Investigating Vulnerable Populations Inhabiting Sea Level Rise Resilient Geography in Miami, FL

      Korgaonkar, Yoga; Pachito, Samuel (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      Sea level rise (SLR) in Miami demands attention from policymakers to consider environmental benefits such as higher elevation as potential disadvantages when possessed by vulnerable populations. Without examining higher elevation landscapes, certain demographic features within historically segregated neighborhoods risk unfair exposure to climate gentrification. To find communities most affected by SLR per select neighborhood and census tract, ArcGIS Pro was used to create bathtub models from USGS digital elevation models, and polygons containing American Community Survey census data, which were spatially joined to illustrate those affected by SLR per half meter interval. Finding that while three of the four contemporary neighborhoods retain predominate racial and ethnic character of each respective historical community, 25.6% of the total population were in poverty, and 2.8% were 85 and older. Little Havana (92.8% Hispanic & Latino) was most affected by SLR in area and by population count. The area lost per census tract across all SLR intervals ranged from 0% - 96%, with the most resilient census tract found in Little Haiti with < 1.5% area lost at 3.0 m of SLR. This study elucidates the demographic details of higher elevation locations possessing varying degrees of resilience but that are at risk to climate gentrification.
    • LAND USE EFFECTS ON URBAN HEAT ISLANDS IN MARICOPA COUNTY

      Mason, Jennifer; Bollinger, Kyle (The University of Arizona., 2022-05-02)
      Maricopa County of Arizona is the 4th most populous county in the US, growing over 20% in population between 2010 and 2020. The Urban Heat Island (UHI) phenomenon in the county has increased alongside. The continued growth of urban and suburban structures, roads, and vegetation removal have created a heating effect near the ground that can be measured by the Land Surface Temperature (LST). By comparing Landsat-8 Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) data the LST and thus UHI can be analyzed to better understand the long-term costs associated with urbanization. This effect is commonly associated with the removal of vegetation and using low reflective building and paving materials which can disproportionally influence the surface temperatures and thus heat in the area. Due to the sparse desert vegetation of Maricopa County, one would suspect that the newly developed areas may not be much warmer but due to the nature of the built materials that can absorb and release more energy after the sun sets than typical Arizona dirt. However, newly planted, and harvested farmland had the largest mean LST shifts within the study period contributing to the UHI problem even though farming occurs in rural areas. The urban space needs additional considerations and model variables that county officials could consider. Using an exploratory regression with an average land use per American Community Survey census tract and a generalized linear regression, results show which areas might exacerbate UHI issues so that the associated costs can be considered as part of future planning.
    • Las Vegas Metropolitan Area Urban Sprawl Assessment Using Shannon's Entropy

      Mason, Jennifer; Stuht, Casey M (The University of Arizona., 2022-05-03)
      A population center’s growth, known as urbanization, can pressure delicate environments and place strain on a region’s natural resources. Remote sensing combined with Geographic Information Systems can analyze and map the phenomenon of urban sprawl. This study quantifies growth within the Las Vegas, Nevada urban boundary using the aforementioned tools and Shannon’s Entropy method for 2000 and 2020. Shannon’s Entropy measures urban morphology, calculating compactness and dispersion of binary categorization, in this case, ‘developed’ and ‘undeveloped’ land cover. Eighteen multi-ring buffers were placed around Las Vegas City Hall at 1-mile intervals and found entropy values of 1.10 and 1.15 respectively. In comparison for the same years mentioned, five multi-ring buffers were set around the study area’s three main highways at 1-mile intervals and found entropy values of .608 and .628 respectively. All entropy values using the multi-ring buffer method were > 50% of log(n) for each dataset, meaning that the ‘developed’ land cover spatial variable is evenly dispersed across the study area with compactness or clustering of the ‘developed’ class found within each buffer zone. Temporally, over the 20-year period, the dispersion of development continued, with an increase in entropy values. Further, a geographic quadrant assessment revealed that the greatest land cover change-over from ‘undeveloped’ to ‘developed’ occurred in the northwestern and southwestern portions of the study area. This exercise provides a framework for developing municipalities that seek a cost effective, accessible, and expeditious method to better recognize sprawl patterns with the aim of correcting inefficient land and resource management.
    • Migration Centers of Virginia

      Korgaonkar, Yoga; Reyes, Neil (The University of Arizona., 2022-04-28)
      As the foreign-born population continues to grow in the United States, analyzing migration factors is crucial for continued growth. Immigration can be integral to the overall economy of an area as it leads to an increase of workers, business owners, taxpayers, and consumers. Virginia, specifically the Northern Virginia metropolitan region, is prime example of this correlation between a high foreign-born population and a bolstering economy. To ensure the large foreign-born population is maintained in Virginia, this study focuses on the significance and causes of migration. Several socioeconomic demographics were examined through regression and suitability analyses to understand the relationship between immigrants and an economy and migration. Based on the knowledge of push and pull migration factors, various demographics were chosen to represent these factors. The regression analysis assessed the relationship between the high foreign-born population and economic demographics, while the location suitability analysis mapped potential sites for immigration based on established migration criteria. The regression analysis proved an overall positive relationship between a large-foreign born population and an area’s overall economy, highlighting the importance of migration. The location suitability analysis demonstrated the draw, in conjunction with current immigrant population demographics, to those large urban centers with higher levels of socioeconomic advancement. The final cartographic products will demonstrate the importance of immigration to stimulate an area’s economy and produce recommendations for migration centers.
    • Modeling the Hillside Development Overlay Zone

      Psillas, Jennifer; Avis, Jack; Jackson, Chloe (The University of Arizona., 2016-12)
      Sustainable urban growth can be achieved in part by increasing density through infill development. Done right, infill development encourages already developed areas to become more diverse and livable, while limiting urban sprawl and all the public health, environmental, and infrastructure problems that accompany it. In Pima County’s 2015 update to the Comprehensive Plan, infill development is identified as a goal for land use policy. This study utilizes a Python script to build a model of the Hillside Development Overlay Zone (HDZ) to aid in removing zoning barriers to this goal. This a) improves the permitting process; b) encourages purchase of parcels outside of hillside areas and; c) encourages innovative design on hillside areas. The visualization is available on Pima County’s MapGuide website, allowing developers to make informed decisions about purchasing, permitting, and designing on HDZ parcels. In addition, this study uses a Kernel Density analysis to suggest areas where HDZ can be removed, without losing protection for mountainous areas. These suggestions are submitted to Pima County Development Services.
    • Monitoring urban land-use trends using remote sensed imagery and GIS for the Tucson, Arizona metropolitan region

      Danloe, John; Labadie, Philippe-Luis; Psillas, Jen; Lukinbeal, Chris (The University of Arizona., 2016-12-18)
      This project demonstrates the usefulness of using remotely sensed imagery in conjunction with GIS for urban studies. Utilizing 1-meter high-resolution imagery and GIS, this project provides land-cover change statistics and spatial variables describing new urban development. Statistics of land-cover change were used to quantify the amount of new urban development in acreage. The project then employed a global logistic regression to determine the significant topographic variables influencing the new urban development. The project focused on urban growth from 1998 to 2010 for the Greater Tucson Metropolitan Region. These methods provide accurate and useful information for quantifying urban growth.
    • The Northern Chaco Outliers Project: Surface Hydrology of the Lakeview Community

      Korgaonkar, Yoga; Grundvig, Jeremy (The University of Arizona., 2022-04-28)
      Farming was introduced and thrived in the high desert of the four-corners region since ca. A.D. 500. As subsistence patterns shifted from hunting and gathering to a more sedentary lifestyle based on agriculture, access to reliable water sources became increasingly crucial. Utilizing ESRI’s ArcGIS Pro, a Geographical Information System (GIS), I look at the surface hydrology of an ancestral Pueblo community in southwest Colorado using Digital Elevation Models (DEMs), to calculate the path and velocity of the community’s watershed. Using higher resolutions DEMs which have become available from the United States Geological Survey (USGS), I calculate the watershed using DEMs derived from 30-meters, 10-meters and 1-meter. The results are aiding researchers at Crow Canyon Archaeological Center to better understand ancestral inhabitants’ environments by providing models to aid in investigations to include stream flow, historic route changes, possibly water control features, seep spring locations, and agriculture potential. The various DEMs are used to delineate a watershed under 100 square kilometers, focusing on the Lakeview Community. The differing results display how the 30-meter resolution provides insight to prehistoric stream routes while detailed resolutions aid in the investigation of natural springs and the hydrologic impacts of historic irrigation projects. The results are part of a long-term environmental study to better understand how ancestral inhabitants used their terrain and resources and whether a community’s location intentionally sought to take advantage of local hydrology, arable soil or other factors.
    • Opioid Treatment Accessibility in Maricopa County, Arizona: A Network Analysis of Certified Opioid Treatment Programs and Buprenorphine Providers

      Sanchez-Trigueros, Fernando; Jacobs, Amanda (The University of Arizona., 2020-05)
      The United States opioid epidemic has been at the forefront of national response efforts. Despite tightening regulations on opioid prescribing, opioid addiction continues to be problematic. This study was designed to analyze opioid treatment accessibility in Maricopa County, Arizona, one of the most populous counties in the U.S. Based on data from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 656 buprenorphine providers and 182 certified opioid treatment center locations in Maricopa County were incorporated to evaluate for treatment accessibility. Using GIS network analyst tools, distance to the closest treatment location was determined for each Maricopa County census tract. To further visualize accessibility, 2.5, 5, and 10-mile service areas were also located. The analysis demonstrated route distances increased moving outwards from the urban city areas of Maricopa County. Likewise, service areas also tended to branch outward from the urban city core. Spatially, rural areas are disproportionately impacted with regards to opioid treatment accessibility and populations living in these areas are at higher risk for encountering barriers to opioid treatment. These findings provide key information that may assist in population health outreach services and potentially useful data for public health policy efforts aimed at improving access to opioid addiction treatment.
    • OPTIMIZED COMMUNITY CENTER PLACEMENT IN MINNEAPOLIS, MINNESOTA

      Mason, Jennifer; Bacon, Thomas (The University of Arizona., 2022-05)
      Violent crime has risen sharply in Minneapolis in the last two years and with that, youth and teenagers as young as 13 years old participating in violent crime has also seen a sharp increase. With on-going teacher strikes, remote learning, and other factors allowing youth more opportunity to be out of school, Minneapolis can greatly benefit from the implementation of a new community center. Attempting to solve this problem comes with a twofold approach of an overlay analysis, analyzing socio-economic factors, currently occupied and vacant public institutions, and relative crime per neighborhood – then using these same variables with a weighted overlay analysis. The simple overlay approach indicates that a community center would be optimally placed in Northeast Minneapolis however, it should be noted that the relative crime there is far lower than any location the weighted overlay would result in. The results from the weighted analysis are far more practical than the results of the simple overlay would suggest, having more possible locations in North and South Minneapolis. It would be beneficial to talk to community stakeholders and gather their opinion for influence on the weighted overlay for future iterations of this research.
    • Protecting Ka Mo'omeheu O Hawai'i: A Cultural Resources Risk Assessment

      Sanchez, Fernando; Ruddell, Kasiah (The University of Arizona., 2021-08)
      Archaeological and historic sites are important to contemporary societies all over the world, especially to peoples like the Kanaka Maoli, or Native Hawaiians, who have suffered the attempted theft of their culture and identity. The Hawaiian Island of Oahu is rich with cultural resources including over 2,000 archaeological and historic sites. Oahu is the most populated and industrial of the Hawaiian Islands and is not escaping climate change caused sea level rise and coastal erosion, so these sites are at risk of being damaged or lost. With so many cultural resources, it is difficult to discern what threatens each site via standard observation and field methods. In this study, a Cultural Resources Vulnerability Index is used to determine the level of risk for cultural resource sites on Oahu. This index combines both coastal vulnerability and anthropogenic risk factors as well as position on the island to provide a risk ranking. Coastal vulnerability includes flood zones, sea level rise, coastal erosion, elevation, and slope and anthropogenic factors include location in State Land Use Districts, population density, and air pollution. With such a rich density of cultural resources, this study illustrates how GIS can be used to examine multiple risks and ultimately ascertain which sites need immediate action. Lastly, a dashboard application is used for easy visualization of the results.
    • QUANTIFYING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ARCHEOLOGICAL SITES AND HYDROLOGIC FEATURES: A CASE STUDY

      Korgaonkar, Yoga; Pober, Rachel (The University of Arizona., 2022-05-02)
      Proximity to a water source has been a consistent environmental variable used in predictive modeling of archeological site locations. Currently, there is limited research that has been done to quantify the relationship between water sources and archeological site locations. The Sand Hollow area, located in Southern Utah, has had many modern construction projects consisting of roadway expansions, a reservoir, and golf courses. These projects required compliance with Section 106 consisting of mitigation measures using archeological excavation. With these required excavations, the Sand Hollow area provides a robust dataset of archeological sites. Thus, the Sand Hollow area is used as a case study to research if there is a correlation between hydrologic features and archeological sites using GIS. Sand Hollow reservoir was constructed in June 2000. A Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was downloaded from February 2000 to remove impacts from modern construction of the reservoir on the derived hydrologic features. To quantify the relationship between archeological sites and hydrologic features, buffer zones at 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, and >500 meters from hydrologic features are created. The chi-squared test is used to compare the observed to the expected relationship between archeological sites and hydrologic features. Through these methods, archeological sites were found to have a significant relationship to hydrologic features within the study area. The archeological dataset from Shifting Sands is divided into three time periods of Archaic, Anasazi, and Late Prehistoric. Using the chi-squared test, the Anasazi period has the most significant relationship to hydrologic features.
    • Recent Violent Crime Dynamics and Spatial Patterns in Albuquerque, New Mexico

      Sanchez-Trigueros, Fernando; Schiffer, Dustin (The University of Arizona., 2019-12)
      This project is an analysis of violent crime in the City of Albuquerque, New Mexico. In 2014, the DOJ opened an investigation into the Albuquerque Police Department (APD) which resulted in APD’s officer numbers dwindling, and making the officers that stay afraid to use their entire tool and skill set. This project uses raw data retrieved directly from APDs API to detect historical and geospatial patterns in Albuquerque crime data. It also uses complimentary data sets such as current station placement, and school locations. Using a Pareto (80/20) analysis, violent crimes were clustered together for an analysis on incident counts within a quarter mile of schools, and how far away the higher incident count buffers are from current stations. Space-Time (time-cube) analysis was applied with violent crime dates to identify areas that may be experiencing new patterns. The results were compared to the overall data that has been touted by the current city administration. This administration has claimed that crime numbers are going down. The results in this project, however, contradict these claims. The workflow and results described in this report will help identify areas that may require more extensive attention from law enforcement agencies in Albuquerque.
    • A RETRO-ANALYSIS OF THE JANUARY 7TH, 2022 FLOOD CLOSURE OF I-5

      Mason, Jennifer; Strobin, Georgianna (The University of Arizona., 2022-04-28)
      Floods pose an acute risk to transportation networks and impose large costs on travelers. A twenty-mile section of Interstate 5 (I-5) was forced to close on January 7th, 2022, when rising floodwaters from the Chehalis, Skookumchuck, and Newaukum Rivers threatened to cover the highway. Many travelers and residents were unable to reach their destinations and alternate routes quickly became congested. This retroactive analysis investigated the total cost of the flood closure using traffic counts from permanent traffic recording stations, AAA’s estimated cost per mile of operating a vehicle for 2021, and the standard velocity equation—time equals distance divided by velocity—to solve for time cost. Through a GIS-based network analysis, two unique alternative routes are identified and time and mileage costs for travelers are calculated. Route One costs $151.97 while Route Two costs $160.67 in time per vehicle. Respectively, the routes cost $103.65 and $114.20 in mileage costs for each vehicle. Additionally, two historic Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) detour routes are compared in time and mileage costs. Historic Route One costs $266.10 in mileage and $703.94 in time. Historic Route Two is much more expensive at $338.10 in mileage and $1,136.47 in time. The total cost of the flood closure was $924,950. With only one direct route to access so many destinations, it continues to be vitally important to increase access to urban and rural destinations during flood disasters.
    • Selecting Prospective Sites for Future Riparian Areas in Arizona

      Korgaonkar, Yoga; Rhodes, Patrick (The University of Arizona., 2022-04-28)
      Within the desert areas of Arizona, riparian habitat attracts a diverse range of flora and fauna, concentrating their populations along the banks of streams and washes. Due to a variety of factors over the past century, these areas have degraded in size and quality, resulting in a loss of native vegetation and wildlife habitat. Ultimately, if this trend is to be reversed, one approach might be to create new, artificial riparian areas. To achieve that, suitable, non-riparian locations must first be identified for possible conversion into prospective riparian zones. Hence, the goal of this project is to perform a suitability analysis to locate tracts of land within Arizona which might be suitable for riparian conversion. Issues such as water rights, engineering, and funding are not covered in this paper. Several spatial criteria were identified as indicators for success, including land ownership, flooding potential, fire potential, length of streams/washes, proximity to human development and current habitat. Many geographic datasets were utilized to produce maps showing these locations, according to their ability to apply these criteria. Further, once these locations were identified, a historical analysis was performed to show the vegetative health of each area over time, as well as potential rainfall metrics, both of which provided detailed indicators of success. The results revealed several tracts of land in disparate areas which fulfilled all criteria and could be considered for Arizona riparian habitat conversion projects.
    • Site Suitability Analysis for a Land Conservation Easement in El Paso, Texas

      Korgaonkar, Yoga; Van Essen, Daniel (The University of Arizona., 2022-05-02)
      The Chihuahuan desert is an ecologically diverse landscape and the largest desert in North America, covering parts of New Mexico, Texas, and northeastern Mexico. Urbanization, overgrazing, and water depletion threatens the viability of this ecosystem. For the protection of this desert and the wildlife and waterways within it, land conservation is integral. One land conservation strategy is the establishment of a land conservation easement. This type of easement is a voluntary agreement with a non-profit organization or government agency that prevents development and specifies best practices within the easement while the owner of the land maintains ownership. In response to the need of land conservation, this study utilizes a multi-criteria evaluation with weighted overlay technique to identify suitable and ecologically valuable land for a land conservation easement in El Paso County, Texas. Criteria for suitability was developed with Frontera Land Alliance, a non-profit conservation organization. GIS software was utilized to implement the multi-criteria evaluation with weighted overlay technique and map suitable conservation land in El Paso County. This study ranks all land within El Paso County based on a scale of five with one being the least suitable land and five being the most suitable land. Approximately 77,916 acres of land, equating to 12 percent of the land within El Paso County was ranked as a five in terms of high suitability. This study identifies the twenty-five most suitable parcels for a land conservation easement. The results of the study will help Frontera Land Alliance identify the most suitable parcels to pursue acquisition for a land conservation easement.
    • A Site Suitability Analysis to Reduce Lead Poisoning Through Small-Scale Retail in Syracuse, NY

      Mason, Jennifer; Hernandez, Erika (The University of Arizona., 2022-05)
      Syracuse, New York has been fighting an uphill battle against lead. It’s in their homes, soil, and water and disproportionately affects lower-income communities. Children are especially sensitive before the age of 6, experiencing decreased cognitive function, reduced motor control, developmental disabilities, and death, among others. 12 percent of children in Syracuse tested positive for elevated blood lead levels, four times the national average. Diet can help combat lead contamination by increasing iron levels. Iron and lead bind to the same transport protein in the small intestine where metals are absorbed into the bloodstream. With only 77 grocery stores to cover 25.5 square miles and over 140,000 people, Syracuse’s residents may rely on convenience stores, dollar stores, and fast-food restaurants to pick up the slack. Combating food insecurity may be possible by targeting food deserts and increasing access to healthy foods. To find the areas where small-scale retail would benefit the most, a Boolean Suitability Analysis was used to find food deserts using poverty levels, minority status, population density, existing grocery stores, and vacant lot parcel data. A Weighted Linear Combination Suitability Analysis found the locations that ranked higher for the intersection of food deserts, childhood elevated blood lead levels, current lead violations, and tracts with high numbers of children under 5-years-old. Of the 165 locations from the resulting analysis, 65 locations ranked between medium and high suitability. This analysis will help local officials, community leaders, and non-profit organizations determine where to combat food deserts and elevated blood lead levels in children.