• An Introduction to Identifying Nonpoint Sources of Water Pollution Using a Modified Land Use Conflict Analysis Identification Strategy (LUCIS) Model, Non-point Source Identification Strategy: NPSIS

      Cziesch, Jarrett (The University of Arizona., 2015)
      This paper examines the Non-Point Source Identification Strategy (NPSIS); a modification of the Land Use Conflict Identification Strategy (LUCIS): NPSIS is a raster model useful for identifying non-point sources of water pollution from three known contributors (agriculture, domestic, and natural background). By using a standard operating procedure, developers are able to create standardized datasets useful for identifying non-point sources of water pollution throughout the contiguous United States. The NPSIS model process requires the use of three “non-point source water pollution” contributors. A contributor is termed as a Non-Point Category (NPC) that contains collective elements (i.e. nutrient applications for agricultural purposes and urban runoff from highly developed areas). Using a survey, water resource professionals familiar with chosen study areas rank each NPC element according to potential impact to water quality. Following the survey, raster datasets that represent each NPC and impact to water quality are created using a lowest to highest (“1-9”) ordinal rank system derived from survey results after which each dataset is normalized using a (“1-3”) ordinal rank. Finally, the normalized NPC datasets are combined into one final model useful for identifying each dominant NPC by rank and location within a specified USGS watershed. In conclusion, the modifications to the LUCIS method yields results beneficial for identifying non-point source loads of water pollution.
    • Investigating Vulnerable Populations Inhabiting Sea Level Rise Resilient Geography in Miami, FL

      Korgaonkar, Yoga; Pachito, Samuel (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      Sea level rise (SLR) in Miami demands attention from policymakers to consider environmental benefits such as higher elevation as potential disadvantages when possessed by vulnerable populations. Without examining higher elevation landscapes, certain demographic features within historically segregated neighborhoods risk unfair exposure to climate gentrification. To find communities most affected by SLR per select neighborhood and census tract, ArcGIS Pro was used to create bathtub models from USGS digital elevation models, and polygons containing American Community Survey census data, which were spatially joined to illustrate those affected by SLR per half meter interval. Finding that while three of the four contemporary neighborhoods retain predominate racial and ethnic character of each respective historical community, 25.6% of the total population were in poverty, and 2.8% were 85 and older. Little Havana (92.8% Hispanic & Latino) was most affected by SLR in area and by population count. The area lost per census tract across all SLR intervals ranged from 0% - 96%, with the most resilient census tract found in Little Haiti with < 1.5% area lost at 3.0 m of SLR. This study elucidates the demographic details of higher elevation locations possessing varying degrees of resilience but that are at risk to climate gentrification.
    • Land Cover Change across Barbados using Remote Sensing and GIS Technology

      Sanchez Trigueros, Fernando; Browne, Tia (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      This paper focuses on the use of GIS (Geographical Information Systems) technology to determine land cover change in Barbados between 2014 and 2021. The island has experienced drought and urban expansion over the years which has raised concern about the availability of arable land on the island. Data acquired from the U.S geological survey Earth Explorer portal for February 26th, 2014, and March 2nd, 2021, were used to compute the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) for both years. Supervised classification using Support Vector Machines was used to determine seven (7) identified classes and their changes over the eight (8) year period. Results from the NDVI showed a general decrease in healthy vegetation from 2014 to 2021. 43.22% of the island experienced vegetation loss with 56.52% having vegetation remaining unchanged. Interestingly, only 0.26% of vegetation experienced regrowth mainly in forested areas. The validation of the supervised classification method used yielded an overall medium level of agreement with between 64% and 67% accuracy. The greatest change in land cover was from bare soil/barren land to urban areas which accounted for 23.2% change. 10.4% of grassy areas in 2014 changed to urban areas in 2021 with less than 10% change from forest to urban and agriculture to urban.

      Mason, Jennifer; Bollinger, Kyle (The University of Arizona., 2022-05-02)
      Maricopa County of Arizona is the 4th most populous county in the US, growing over 20% in population between 2010 and 2020. The Urban Heat Island (UHI) phenomenon in the county has increased alongside. The continued growth of urban and suburban structures, roads, and vegetation removal have created a heating effect near the ground that can be measured by the Land Surface Temperature (LST). By comparing Landsat-8 Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) data the LST and thus UHI can be analyzed to better understand the long-term costs associated with urbanization. This effect is commonly associated with the removal of vegetation and using low reflective building and paving materials which can disproportionally influence the surface temperatures and thus heat in the area. Due to the sparse desert vegetation of Maricopa County, one would suspect that the newly developed areas may not be much warmer but due to the nature of the built materials that can absorb and release more energy after the sun sets than typical Arizona dirt. However, newly planted, and harvested farmland had the largest mean LST shifts within the study period contributing to the UHI problem even though farming occurs in rural areas. The urban space needs additional considerations and model variables that county officials could consider. Using an exploratory regression with an average land use per American Community Survey census tract and a generalized linear regression, results show which areas might exacerbate UHI issues so that the associated costs can be considered as part of future planning.
    • Las Vegas Metropolitan Area Urban Sprawl Assessment Using Shannon's Entropy

      Mason, Jennifer; Stuht, Casey M (The University of Arizona., 2022-05-03)
      A population center’s growth, known as urbanization, can pressure delicate environments and place strain on a region’s natural resources. Remote sensing combined with Geographic Information Systems can analyze and map the phenomenon of urban sprawl. This study quantifies growth within the Las Vegas, Nevada urban boundary using the aforementioned tools and Shannon’s Entropy method for 2000 and 2020. Shannon’s Entropy measures urban morphology, calculating compactness and dispersion of binary categorization, in this case, ‘developed’ and ‘undeveloped’ land cover. Eighteen multi-ring buffers were placed around Las Vegas City Hall at 1-mile intervals and found entropy values of 1.10 and 1.15 respectively. In comparison for the same years mentioned, five multi-ring buffers were set around the study area’s three main highways at 1-mile intervals and found entropy values of .608 and .628 respectively. All entropy values using the multi-ring buffer method were > 50% of log(n) for each dataset, meaning that the ‘developed’ land cover spatial variable is evenly dispersed across the study area with compactness or clustering of the ‘developed’ class found within each buffer zone. Temporally, over the 20-year period, the dispersion of development continued, with an increase in entropy values. Further, a geographic quadrant assessment revealed that the greatest land cover change-over from ‘undeveloped’ to ‘developed’ occurred in the northwestern and southwestern portions of the study area. This exercise provides a framework for developing municipalities that seek a cost effective, accessible, and expeditious method to better recognize sprawl patterns with the aim of correcting inefficient land and resource management.
    • Lead and Copper Rule Revisions: A Case Study in Identifying and Tracking Lead Water Service Lines with ArcGIS Field Maps

      Lukinbeal, Chris; Martin, Robert (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      The United States Environmental Protection Agency enacted the Lead and Copper Rule in 1991 to protect community water system consumers from exposure to lead and copper. The rule ensures levels of lead and copper in drinking water systems are below action levels. If the action level is exceeded, additional steps are required from water utilities to control corrosion in water systems. Significant quantities of lead in naturally occurring water sources are rare. However, with the use of certain plumbing fixtures containing brass, bronze or lead pipe prior to the Lead and Copper Rule of 1991, these materials can dissolve, flake or be found as small particles posing serious health risks. Corrosion can be a serious problem and is controlled through chemical treatment of source water. Considering events of the Flint, Michigan water crisis, revisions to improve the existing rule have been promulgated. The Lead and Copper Rule Revisions published on January 15, 2021, require service line material inventories, public outreach, and equitable replacement of lead service lines. Compliance is October 16, 2024. This case study includes a GIS based approach to identify and document all service line materials within the Ute Water District in Grand Junction, Colorado. GIS data architecture, methods and procedures utilizing ArcGIS software particularly ArcGIS Field Maps are shown to improve workflows, reduce time and redundancy over traditional paper record keeping methods. Data collection will be ongoing due to the large service area; however, a subset area will be analyzed within this study.

      Sánchez-Trigueros, Fernando; Garritson, David (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      Working in law enforcement is a challenging task, having the right tools available could mean success over failure. A proven method to identify and deter crime is mapping incidents from existing data to analyze and identify patterns. Small to medium size law enforcement agencies do not have the resources to utilize crime analysis mapping. Whether it is a matter of knowledge, time, staffing, or other factors; the benefits of mapping crime are unfortunately missing. By offering an understanding of the benefits of GIS, it will lead law enforcement agencies to use mapping in their crime analysis. With a clear understanding of where crime is being committed, policing trouble areas to reduce crime. Through creation of simple maps that depict criminal activity for a given area, it is possible to deter that crime. Learning how to utilize GIS tools that are currently available to prepare a visualization of crime in the form of a map, could lead to improved policing. Safer communities are possible with the proper training, a clear understanding of problem areas, and using mapping as a solution.
    • Mapping the Retreat of the Debris-Covered Tasman Glacier in the Aoraki-Mount Cook National Park, New Zealand

      Sánchez-Trigueros, Fernando; Garcia, Rose (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      As anthropogenic global climate change continues to accelerate, glaciers around the world are rapidly retreating. The Tasman Glacier offers a unique opportunity to demonstrate the challenge of mapping a debris covered glacier with a contemporary and rapid loss of ice at the terminus. Landsat 4, ETM+, and 8 OLI satellite Level-2 Reflectance imagery for years 1990, 2000, 2010 and 2022, are utilized for mapping the debris-covered glacier using a semi-automatic Support Vector Machine (SVM) classification. Normalized difference snow and ice index (NDSI) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) are threshold and used as supplemental data for interpretation and optimization of machine learning training samples. To support delineation of the debris-covered glacier at the terminus location, slope data are derived from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Digital Elevation Model (DEM). In addition to morphometric parameters, the DEM is used to calculate the glacier flow direction required to delineate the Tasman watershed. The 2013 Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) digital glacier outline is modified to delineate the Tasman Glacier System to derive the total area. Variability of the terminus retreat is quantified by area changes of the debris- covered glacier and proglacial lake. Post classification confusion matrices are computed to assess the quality and performance of the classified images. The overall level of agreement between the ground truth data and the predicted classes using the SVM classifier is strong, with an average Kappa statistic of 85 percent and average overall accuracy of 90 percent.
    • Measuring Ground Deformation Using Interferometry

      Summerlin, Tyler (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      The 2018 earthquake near Big Island, Hawaii caused landslides and ground deformation along the east coast. Ground deformation from seismic activity is of interest to scientists as it gives indications of volcanic activity below the Earth’s surface. Measuring this deformation can be challenging and typically requires Global Positioning System (GPS) monitors in place prior to an event to measure change, however, radar satellites provide a clear picture of wide scale movements. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is a collection method that compares Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) collections to measure vertical and horizontal ground displacement. This paper will outline the processes and methods used to process raw SAR data into an interferogram, a deformation map that precisely measures the ground shift after seismic events, glacial movements, or biomass change. Processing an interferogram started with reading raw radar collections from a SAR satellite such as Sentinel-1 and subsequently applying a series of conversions and transformations to create measurable data in the form of a displacement map. The calculated displacement indicates ground a sinking or downslope movement of -0.405 meters over the most active seismic area in Hawaii. The result from the interferogram and displacement map quantifies the effects of seismic activity and how InSAR can be used to accurately measure deformation for use in planning safe urban and infrastructure growth in areas of seismic activity.
    • Migration Centers of Virginia

      Korgaonkar, Yoga; Reyes, Neil (The University of Arizona., 2022-04-28)
      As the foreign-born population continues to grow in the United States, analyzing migration factors is crucial for continued growth. Immigration can be integral to the overall economy of an area as it leads to an increase of workers, business owners, taxpayers, and consumers. Virginia, specifically the Northern Virginia metropolitan region, is prime example of this correlation between a high foreign-born population and a bolstering economy. To ensure the large foreign-born population is maintained in Virginia, this study focuses on the significance and causes of migration. Several socioeconomic demographics were examined through regression and suitability analyses to understand the relationship between immigrants and an economy and migration. Based on the knowledge of push and pull migration factors, various demographics were chosen to represent these factors. The regression analysis assessed the relationship between the high foreign-born population and economic demographics, while the location suitability analysis mapped potential sites for immigration based on established migration criteria. The regression analysis proved an overall positive relationship between a large-foreign born population and an area’s overall economy, highlighting the importance of migration. The location suitability analysis demonstrated the draw, in conjunction with current immigrant population demographics, to those large urban centers with higher levels of socioeconomic advancement. The final cartographic products will demonstrate the importance of immigration to stimulate an area’s economy and produce recommendations for migration centers.
    • Modeling Postfire Soil Erosion and Sediment Deposition on the Tonto National Monument with the Unit Stream Power Erosion and Deposition Model

      Sanchez, Fernando; Macias, Michael (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      A major consequence of wildfire events is the acceleration of soil erosion by surface runoff. During a rainfall event, soil may become detached, transported, and eventually deposited elsewhere on the landscape. One approach to predict whether and where this erosion process could occur requires determining six empirically established factors, namely, rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility, slope length, slope steepness, vegetation cover, and erosion management methods. This project analyzed these landscape factors on the Tonto National Monument, an archaeologically rich site containing 14th century cliff dwellings in central Arizona’s Tonto Basin. In the summer of 2019, over 80% of the monument burned, threatening its natural and cultural resources both from the fire itself and from the postfire erosion that followed. Chosen for its ability to predict both soil erosion and sediment deposition, the Unit-Stream-Power-Erosion-and-Deposition Model identified areas of the monument where the erosion process may have occurred and to what extent. This project used high resolution data to obtain each factor in raster format followed by further calculations based on changes in sediment transport capacity using a Geographic Information System (GIS) called ArcGIS Pro. The model predicted that 13.5% of the monument had high erosion, 27% moderate erosion, 15.5% low erosion, 8.7% stable, 3.2% low deposition, 6.2% moderate deposition, and 25.7% high deposition. Although this project’s methodology focused on the 2019 fire event, it offers resource managers on the monument an approach to monitor and mitigate potential future fire events, reducing costs and focusing efforts to areas of highest risk.
    • Modeling the Change in Distribution of an Endangered Lichen Species Under Projected Climate Conditions

      Sánchez-Trigueros, Fernando; Jones, Julia (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      Sulcaria spiralifera, or Dune Hair Lichen, is endemic to coastal dune forests along the Pacific coast in the continental United States. The species’ habitat is vulnerable to drought and temperature extremes. Modeling the possible impact of climate change can assist with conservation planning and bolster preservation of the entire ecosystem. This study investigates the impact of climate change on the distribution of a rare and endangered species by using the maximum entropy probability distribution principal to build a predictive species distribution model. The approach has demonstrated success in predicting the distribution of rare species that may include limited data and lack points of absence. The probable distribution of the species was modeled under current and historic climate conditions and used to train new models that would predict distribution under future climate conditions. Results of the project show a spatial change in habitat between 2021 and 2100 with suitable locations becoming more abundant. Positive changes in presence predict a shift inland while locations along the coast experience negative change. Despite an overall increase in suitable habitat, the predicted point of presence remains relatively stable with gradual increases around 2% every 20 years until a decrease of 4% between 2080 and 2100. Although the models show an increase in habitat suitability over time, it is unclear whether the Dune Hair Lichen could survive potential relocation as habitat shifts inland. The species distribution model under future climate conditions can help conservationists monitor and inventory the species to assess adaptation success.
    • Modeling the Hillside Development Overlay Zone

      Psillas, Jennifer; Avis, Jack; Jackson, Chloe (The University of Arizona., 2016-12)
      Sustainable urban growth can be achieved in part by increasing density through infill development. Done right, infill development encourages already developed areas to become more diverse and livable, while limiting urban sprawl and all the public health, environmental, and infrastructure problems that accompany it. In Pima County’s 2015 update to the Comprehensive Plan, infill development is identified as a goal for land use policy. This study utilizes a Python script to build a model of the Hillside Development Overlay Zone (HDZ) to aid in removing zoning barriers to this goal. This a) improves the permitting process; b) encourages purchase of parcels outside of hillside areas and; c) encourages innovative design on hillside areas. The visualization is available on Pima County’s MapGuide website, allowing developers to make informed decisions about purchasing, permitting, and designing on HDZ parcels. In addition, this study uses a Kernel Density analysis to suggest areas where HDZ can be removed, without losing protection for mountainous areas. These suggestions are submitted to Pima County Development Services.
    • Monitoring urban land-use trends using remote sensed imagery and GIS for the Tucson, Arizona metropolitan region

      Danloe, John; Labadie, Philippe-Luis; Psillas, Jen; Lukinbeal, Chris (The University of Arizona., 2016-12-18)
      This project demonstrates the usefulness of using remotely sensed imagery in conjunction with GIS for urban studies. Utilizing 1-meter high-resolution imagery and GIS, this project provides land-cover change statistics and spatial variables describing new urban development. Statistics of land-cover change were used to quantify the amount of new urban development in acreage. The project then employed a global logistic regression to determine the significant topographic variables influencing the new urban development. The project focused on urban growth from 1998 to 2010 for the Greater Tucson Metropolitan Region. These methods provide accurate and useful information for quantifying urban growth.
    • New method to identify illegal uses of water by using remote sensing and neural network in Laguna de Aculeo, Chile

      Sanchez Trigueros, Fernando; Venegas-Quiñones, Héctor L. (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      The Aculeo lagoon basin has been declared an emergency drought place, limiting water usage strictly for domestic use. Chile's laws impose economic sanctions on individuals who use water resources to irrigate grass in these places. This project evaluates the healthy lawn condition in a specific dry season (period without rain events) to identify the areas that have potentially been using the water resource illegally by using multi-spectral and multitemporal free satellite data at the Aculeo lagoon basin. We derive different soil indices, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), Green Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (GNDVI), Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI), Moisture Stress Index (MSI), and Bare Soil Index (BSI) during October 2021 to April 2022. Also, we perform a cluster analysis to evaluate the statistical distribution of healthy vegetation cover. All the results are available in an ArcGIS interactive web map. This research proves some properties have probably used water to irrigate lawns because their health has maintained or increased over time. Thus, we estimate the lawn areas in the basin and their water consumption to illustrate how much water has been used illegally. In addition, the cluster analysis demonstrates a consistent pattern of healthy vegetation covers, concluding that these groupings are unusual compared to the entire basin. We present tools and protocols to be used in areas of water scarcity to identify locations that use the water resource illegally, helping governmental authorities to accomplish personal inspections and impose legal sanctions.
    • The Northern Chaco Outliers Project: Surface Hydrology of the Lakeview Community

      Korgaonkar, Yoga; Grundvig, Jeremy (The University of Arizona., 2022-04-28)
      Farming was introduced and thrived in the high desert of the four-corners region since ca. A.D. 500. As subsistence patterns shifted from hunting and gathering to a more sedentary lifestyle based on agriculture, access to reliable water sources became increasingly crucial. Utilizing ESRI’s ArcGIS Pro, a Geographical Information System (GIS), I look at the surface hydrology of an ancestral Pueblo community in southwest Colorado using Digital Elevation Models (DEMs), to calculate the path and velocity of the community’s watershed. Using higher resolutions DEMs which have become available from the United States Geological Survey (USGS), I calculate the watershed using DEMs derived from 30-meters, 10-meters and 1-meter. The results are aiding researchers at Crow Canyon Archaeological Center to better understand ancestral inhabitants’ environments by providing models to aid in investigations to include stream flow, historic route changes, possibly water control features, seep spring locations, and agriculture potential. The various DEMs are used to delineate a watershed under 100 square kilometers, focusing on the Lakeview Community. The differing results display how the 30-meter resolution provides insight to prehistoric stream routes while detailed resolutions aid in the investigation of natural springs and the hydrologic impacts of historic irrigation projects. The results are part of a long-term environmental study to better understand how ancestral inhabitants used their terrain and resources and whether a community’s location intentionally sought to take advantage of local hydrology, arable soil or other factors.
    • Opioid Treatment Accessibility in Maricopa County, Arizona: A Network Analysis of Certified Opioid Treatment Programs and Buprenorphine Providers

      Sanchez-Trigueros, Fernando; Jacobs, Amanda (The University of Arizona., 2020-05)
      The United States opioid epidemic has been at the forefront of national response efforts. Despite tightening regulations on opioid prescribing, opioid addiction continues to be problematic. This study was designed to analyze opioid treatment accessibility in Maricopa County, Arizona, one of the most populous counties in the U.S. Based on data from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 656 buprenorphine providers and 182 certified opioid treatment center locations in Maricopa County were incorporated to evaluate for treatment accessibility. Using GIS network analyst tools, distance to the closest treatment location was determined for each Maricopa County census tract. To further visualize accessibility, 2.5, 5, and 10-mile service areas were also located. The analysis demonstrated route distances increased moving outwards from the urban city areas of Maricopa County. Likewise, service areas also tended to branch outward from the urban city core. Spatially, rural areas are disproportionately impacted with regards to opioid treatment accessibility and populations living in these areas are at higher risk for encountering barriers to opioid treatment. These findings provide key information that may assist in population health outreach services and potentially useful data for public health policy efforts aimed at improving access to opioid addiction treatment.

      Mason, Jennifer; Bacon, Thomas (The University of Arizona., 2022-05)
      Violent crime has risen sharply in Minneapolis in the last two years and with that, youth and teenagers as young as 13 years old participating in violent crime has also seen a sharp increase. With on-going teacher strikes, remote learning, and other factors allowing youth more opportunity to be out of school, Minneapolis can greatly benefit from the implementation of a new community center. Attempting to solve this problem comes with a twofold approach of an overlay analysis, analyzing socio-economic factors, currently occupied and vacant public institutions, and relative crime per neighborhood – then using these same variables with a weighted overlay analysis. The simple overlay approach indicates that a community center would be optimally placed in Northeast Minneapolis however, it should be noted that the relative crime there is far lower than any location the weighted overlay would result in. The results from the weighted analysis are far more practical than the results of the simple overlay would suggest, having more possible locations in North and South Minneapolis. It would be beneficial to talk to community stakeholders and gather their opinion for influence on the weighted overlay for future iterations of this research.
    • Protecting Ka Mo'omeheu O Hawai'i: A Cultural Resources Risk Assessment

      Sanchez, Fernando; Ruddell, Kasiah (The University of Arizona., 2021-08)
      Archaeological and historic sites are important to contemporary societies all over the world, especially to peoples like the Kanaka Maoli, or Native Hawaiians, who have suffered the attempted theft of their culture and identity. The Hawaiian Island of Oahu is rich with cultural resources including over 2,000 archaeological and historic sites. Oahu is the most populated and industrial of the Hawaiian Islands and is not escaping climate change caused sea level rise and coastal erosion, so these sites are at risk of being damaged or lost. With so many cultural resources, it is difficult to discern what threatens each site via standard observation and field methods. In this study, a Cultural Resources Vulnerability Index is used to determine the level of risk for cultural resource sites on Oahu. This index combines both coastal vulnerability and anthropogenic risk factors as well as position on the island to provide a risk ranking. Coastal vulnerability includes flood zones, sea level rise, coastal erosion, elevation, and slope and anthropogenic factors include location in State Land Use Districts, population density, and air pollution. With such a rich density of cultural resources, this study illustrates how GIS can be used to examine multiple risks and ultimately ascertain which sites need immediate action. Lastly, a dashboard application is used for easy visualization of the results.

      Korgaonkar, Yoga; Pober, Rachel (The University of Arizona., 2022-05-02)
      Proximity to a water source has been a consistent environmental variable used in predictive modeling of archeological site locations. Currently, there is limited research that has been done to quantify the relationship between water sources and archeological site locations. The Sand Hollow area, located in Southern Utah, has had many modern construction projects consisting of roadway expansions, a reservoir, and golf courses. These projects required compliance with Section 106 consisting of mitigation measures using archeological excavation. With these required excavations, the Sand Hollow area provides a robust dataset of archeological sites. Thus, the Sand Hollow area is used as a case study to research if there is a correlation between hydrologic features and archeological sites using GIS. Sand Hollow reservoir was constructed in June 2000. A Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was downloaded from February 2000 to remove impacts from modern construction of the reservoir on the derived hydrologic features. To quantify the relationship between archeological sites and hydrologic features, buffer zones at 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, and >500 meters from hydrologic features are created. The chi-squared test is used to compare the observed to the expected relationship between archeological sites and hydrologic features. Through these methods, archeological sites were found to have a significant relationship to hydrologic features within the study area. The archeological dataset from Shifting Sands is divided into three time periods of Archaic, Anasazi, and Late Prehistoric. Using the chi-squared test, the Anasazi period has the most significant relationship to hydrologic features.