Now showing items 1-20 of 161


      Korgaonkar, Yoga; Todd, Mary Elizabeth (The University of Arizona., 2024)
      The Oriole Song Series is a collection of traditional Akimel O’Odham songs that describe a journey from the middle Gila River in southern Arizona to the salt flats on the northern coast of the Gulf of California and back. O’Odham men traveled from their traditional homelands to gather salt, and more importantly, complete a sacred pilgrimage. Anthropologist Donald Bahr recorded Vincent Joseph, a Gila River Indian Community member, recite and sing The Oriole Song Series in the early 1980s, which reference physical locations along a metaphorical route intertwined with O’Odham mythologies. Although visible trail segments, trail markers, and linear artifact scatters exist in the archaeological record, the precise path(s) of the physical journey remains unknown. This study explores the potential physical route(s) utilized by Akimel O’Odham and Peeposh peoples and their ancestors as compared to the metaphorical journey described in The Oriole Song Series. A least cost path was calculated for the entire metaphorical route and the results were compared to trails and trail-related features documented in the archaeological and ethnographic records, historic maps, and modern O’Odham knowledge. Results indicate that the least cost path aligned with the location of documented trails in some segments but diverted away from others. Areas where the least cost path overlaps documented trails suggests these segments were commonly used trails for routine activities, as they were the most expedient route. However, because the least cost path does not come near documented trails in most segments, the songs also demonstrate Akimel O’Odham cognitive mapping of the landscape.
    • Spatial Analysis of Traffic Crashes In Pima County Exploring Social And Environmental Components

      Korgaonkar, Yoganand; Gamba Gomez, Nancy (The University of Arizona., 2024)
      This study aims to understand traffic crash dynamics, focusing on hotspot identification at critical intersections and roads connecting to major freeways in Pima County. It seeks insights into social and environmental factors impacting road safety, facilitating informed decision-making. Despite fatalities comprising only 1.42% of crashes compared to the majority categorized as no injury at 60.90%, the significance of traffic accidents remains high due to their substantial economic, emotional, and social costs, impacting the broader community and region. This project utilizes advanced GIS techniques to analyze traffic crashes in Pima County from 2019 to 2023, aiming to identify high-frequency crash locations, analyze crash types, discern timing and frequency patterns, and investigate human and environmental factors contributing to incidents. Detailed accident data undergoes Hot Spot analysis, emphasizing crash severity, with an initial 100-meter bandwidth to identify significant clusters. Demographic and socioeconomic mapping, referencing non-residential zones, supplements the analysis. The Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) offers insights into regional social dynamics. Most accidents occur in favorable conditions, such as good lighting and clear weather, with rear-end collisions predominant. This pattern implies that driver distraction could play a significant role in these incidents.

      Korgaonkar, Yoganand; Eastman, Todd K. (The University of Arizona., 2024)
      The manual web-based download and use of United States Geological Survey (USGS) Landsat imagery to perform raster-based geoprocessing analysis is often time-consuming and repetitive in nature. Searching, sorting, and downloading images to cover an area of interest is overly complicated and error-prone due to the naming conventions of the output files and the excellent level of data management skills required. The purposes of this project are to automate web-based searches based upon date and coverage area and the download of Landsat imagery so that the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analyst can focus on geoprocessing analysis and spend less time on data management. The solution to this problem is in the form of an ArcGIS toolbox developed and written in Python. Inputs to the toolbox include a selected feature (point, line, or polygon), date of interest, percent maximum cloud coverage, and a buffer length used to calculate an extent that buffers the input feature. Given the user’s input, the toolbox searches the online Landsat USGS database for the date and study area of interest to locate the necessary Landsat imagery. The toolbox output is the downloaded Landsat imagery in the form of an ArcGIS mosaic dataset that encompasses the user’s input extent. The toolbox typically completes this automated process within three to five minutes as compared to a manual process that may take hours if not days, depending on the input extent complexity. This toolbox will provide time-saving benefits to any analyst interested in utilizing Landsat imagery in their geoprocessing analysis.

      Korgaonkar, Yoga; Holt, Tamara (The University of Arizona., 2024)
      The Arizona National Scenic Trail (AZNST) is an 800-mile non-motorized path the length of Arizona from the border of Mexico to Utah, crossing very diverse terrain from deserts, mountains, canyons, and forests. The Arizona Trail Association (ATA) is a non-profit organization that protects, maintains, enhances, promotes, and sustains the Arizona National Scenic Trail for hikers, mountain bikers, and equestrians. The ATA organization has 12 trail re-routing projects in 4 of the National Forests (Kaibab, Coconino, Tonto, and Coronado) totaling 70 miles of various lengths (0.1 miles – 25 miles). The goal of this study is to create a least-cost corridor and optimal path model in ArcGIS Model Builder to help streamline the process of determining trail reroutes that will incorporate environmental sustainability, safety, comfort, and aesthetics. The study focuses on three sections of the AZNST within the Coconino National Forest – Anderson Mesa (12 miles), Maverick (25 miles), and East Clear Creek (3 miles). These study areas were chosen since extensive field work and GPS field data points have been gathered from two of the locations (Anderson Mesa and Maverick). The field data was compared to the least-cost corridor and optimal path generated by the model. The model was applied to the third study area, East Clear Creek, which has steeper terrain to verify if the least-cost corridor and optimal path followed the natural contour lines of the terrain.

      Mason, Jennifer; Chang, Ethan (The University of Arizona., 2024)
      In the United States, the number of people who die from drug overdose has been climbing since 1999. This phenomenon is commonly referred to as the opioid epidemic. Overdose deaths are not the only concern associated with this epidemic, either. Methods of opioid use such as injection can lead to other health problems such as the transmission of bloodborne illnesses if performed unsafely. To counteract the impact of the opioid epidemic, a method known as harm reduction has been adopted by the public health community. While harm reduction describes a variety of medical practices, the overall aim is to provide specialized healthcare for people who use drugs, given their unique medical needs. In Arizona, one agency responsible for coordinating harm reduction efforts is the University of Arizona’s Harm Reduction Research Laboratory. This project was conceived as part of that agency’s efforts. After surveying every pharmacy in Arizona, the Harm Reduction Lab was interested in creating a publicly available web map displaying the survey results. This project outlines the procedures taken to produce that map, from geocoding and editing address points, to cleaning and hosting the data in an online format, and finally creating a web map ready for public exposure. The final product is a web map of every pharmacy in the State of Arizona, with detailed information of which pharmacies offer harm reduction services and which types of service they provide. The web map is publicly available and can be used on both PC and mobile devices.

      Korgaonkar, Yoga; Austin, Clintin (The University of Arizona., 2024)
      In the Napoleonic Wars, the Six Days’ Campaign between Napoleon and Marshal Blucher took place in the Champagne Region of France from February 10th to February 15th, 1814. Napoleon commanded around 30,000 inexperienced conscripts, while Blucher led approximately 60,000 hardened veterans of the Army of Silesia, which included Russians and Prussians. The project utilizes the Military Symbol Editor to create daily overlays of units’ dispossession from both armies. These overlays demonstrate how the armies reacted to the individual battles before and after each engagement. The strategic overlay map showing the armies’ dispossession before the campaign’s start offers greater context as to why the battles occurred as they did. Polygons are created around the engagement zones of each battle to apply dot-density overlays to the map. Dot density maps the number of casualties from both armies at each battle, which draws attention to the number of losses and the disproportionate rate after each battle. The project provides a deeper understanding of military campaigns, not just for history enthusiasts but also for students and educators. Using GIS technology, the maps are interactive and provide an immersive experience for the user, allowing them to explore the campaign in great detail and visualize the events as they occurred.
    • Paradise on Fire: 2023 Maui-Lahaina Wildfire Case Study

      Korgaonkar, Yoganand; Mengote, Francis (The University of Arizona., 2024)
      On August 8, 2023, a devastating wildfire occurred in the county of Maui in Hawaii. This research analyzes: 1) the cause of the wildfire; 2) the emergency services effectiveness in Lahaina; and 3) the financial cost of the wildfire. Different sources such as official statements, news articles, and scholarly articles were used to gather information and ArcGIS was the primary tool for analysis and visualization. The prevailing theory for the cause of the wildfire is that a combination of downed power lines, drought, and hurricane winds may have sparked and spread the wildfire. Visual analysis using imagery and land use for Maui, coupled with reports of extended droughts throughout the islands, strongly suggest that although the downed power lines theory is yet to be confirmed, any small source of fire could have started the wildfire. A network analysis was conducted to verify the effectiveness of emergency services in the vicinity of Lahaina. Per the analysis, the emergency services are sufficient on a small-scale incident, however a huge disaster requires more than the one fire station near Lahaina. Remaining fire stations around Maui would be hard-pressed to reach the small town on time. Using the parcel data from Hawaii Statewide GIS program and calculating the damage within the fire boundary of Lahaina, approximately 2,363 properties, including land and buildings were burned which cost approximately 2.86 billion dollars and 973 homes were destroyed costing around 812 million dollars.
    • Geo-Spatial Analysis of the Number of Active Fuel Supply Equipment Registered in Oregon under the Clean Fuels Program

      Korgaonkar, Yoganand (The University of Arizona., 2023-12)
      The Oregon Clean Fuels Program (CFP), launched by the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) in 2016, principally aims to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from transportation fuels such as diesel and gasoline. The CFP has set standards to reduce the carbon intensity of these fuels by 10% in 2025, 20% in 2030, and 37% in 2035. Within the CFP framework, "Fuel Supply Equipment" (FSE) is the umbrella term for various equipment that dispense alternative fuels, from electric vehicle chargers to hydrogen fueling stations and propane dispensers. Credit Generators, i.e., providers of natural gas, propane, electricity, and hydrogen, must register such equipment to accurately report the fuel dispensed and consequently generate credits. This research investigates the relationship between the active FSEs registered under the CFP and Oregon’s demographics, such as population, housing units, and employer establishments. Utilizing Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and statistical methodologies, this study analyzes data from 2016 through September 30, 2023, at both state and county levels. It found a high concentration of active FSEs in counties along the U.S. Interstate Highway 5 (I-5). Spatial autocorrelation analyses revealed a positive correlation between active FSEs and demographics in Multnomah, Washington, and Clackamas counties. The analysis reveals that counties with higher populations, more housing units, and more commercial establishments are likely to have more active FSEs, contributing to the achievement of the state's emission reduction goals.

      Korgaonkar, Yoga; Ortega, Caleb (The University of Arizona., 2023-12)
      Renewable energy, specifically solar power, has witnessed significant growth globally, emerging as a dominant energy source. While solar energy is praised for its emissions-reducing potential, it raises environmental concerns related to land use. One important consideration is the local temperature impact of photovoltaic arrays, referred to as the photovoltaic heat island effect (PVHI). This potential effect has halted many proposed solar developments and has significant implications in urban planning. This paper investigates multiple solar sites in the southwest region of the United States measuring the distance to drop-off (the furthest distance in where the panels significantly affect land surface temperature), and the average increase in temperature within the system from a natural non developed state. Secondarily, this paper will investigate the effects of nontraditional array types such as Agrivoltaics—which integrates crop and energy production within the same space. Analysis is conducted using raster data from the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) Natural Earth Portal, utilizing Landsat 8 and Landsat 9 Collection 2 Level 2 Surface Temperature data. Seasonal temperature variations are normalized by creating an urban heat island index. Temperature drop-off is examined by using transects which extend from edge of arrays outwards to create scatter plot graphs for each solar site. The implications for the water, food, energy nexus is examined and informs policymakers and stakeholders facilitating sustainable development and potential PVHI mitigation strategies.

      Korgaonkar, Yoganand; Myers, Gregory (The University of Arizona., 2023-12)
      Present day inhabitants of Kaiserslautern and the surrounding area are largely unaware of a battle that occurred in 1793 between France and Prussia, which witnessed nearly 70,000 soldiers fighting over a region that belonged to neither nation. This study provides an analysis of a study area located in the vicinity of present-day Kaiserslautern, Germany to assess key moments in a series of smaller skirmishes. Two eyewitness account documents provide the information necessary to perform this research. The first document is an encyclopedia of Prussian battles from 1741 – 1815. The second document is a diary which complements and validates the encyclopedia. This research uses data from digital elevation models, in conjunction with known locations of French and Prussian forces as based on eyewitness accounts, to create an array of visualization techniques that include least cost modeling, viewshed, and line of sight, which rely heavily on topographic features such as water and slope. The results demonstrate how the Prussians, although hundreds of kilometers away from Prussia, were able to defeat the French in a battle that occurred 230 years ago. Additionally, the findings indicate that although the French army was much closer to their home borders, that an advantage was never gained due to the diverse battlefield topographic features.

      Korgaonkar, Yoga; Reiff, Jeffrey (The University of Arizona., 2023-12)
      Stage and lifecycle crop monitoring and assessment are pivotal in agriculture and farming. The increase in global populations, food demand, tighter regulations, and the overall cost of doing business have increased the burden on farmers to meet these challenges while sustaining their businesses and the environment. Farmers must adapt their growing and harvest operations to increase yields that meet the global market and adhere to sustainable farming standards that combat environmental impacts. All while reducing their operating costs. Crop management is often a fieldwork and labor-intensive data collection process. This work will highlight how modern technology in the areas of remote sensing, raster analytics, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), and WebGIS can be applied to analyze and process raster data and environmental information that can be used to calculate vegetation indices. If properly applied, these derived datasets and analyses can be transformed into web services for modern farm equipment and native mobile or web applications for field work, informing precision agriculture practices to tackle the problems mentioned above that today’s local farmers and agronomists encounter.

      Korgaonkar, Yoga; McNulty, Rhiannon (The University of Arizona., 2023-12)
      Olympic National Park covers nearly 1 million acres of the eponymous peninsula in Washington State with over 600 miles of maintained trails across diverse ecosystems. Recreational activities using the trails found in Olympic National Park are enjoyed by 2.4 million people every year. Olympic National Park has designated addressing climate change, which refers to long-term shifts in temperature and weather patterns, as a priority for the National Park in the next century. Climate changes in the park are projected to result in a variety of hydrological changes, such as decreased snow residence times and an increase in flood frequency and magnitude, in addition to extreme and unseasonable weather patterns. Regardless, there is no scientific literature studying the effects of climate change on recreational trails in Olympic National Park and the weather pattern changes that would have the highest levels of impact and what those levels would be. Data from the National Ocean and Atmospheric Association (NOAA), the National Park Service, the Forest Service and NASA helped paint a picture of five specific climate change scenarios: temperatures, flooding, precipitation levels, snowmelt, and sea level rise. Using the highest projections, with a Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) of 8.5, it was found that a majority of the 201 recreational trails in Olympic National Park will be impacted by either one or more of the stated climate change scenarios in the next century.

      Korgaonkar, Yoganand; Latham-Jones, Edward (The University of Arizona., 2023-12-10)
      In recent years, a surge in pedestrian fatalities has necessitated a close examination of their causes. This study, based on five years of data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) and the American Community Survey (ACS) in Tucson, Arizona, aims to determine the impact of the racial composition of census blocks on these fatalities. Between 2017 and 2021, 142 pedestrians lost their lives in Tucson, Arizona. Furthermore, annual pedestrian fatalities during this five-year period increased by 57 percent. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the presence of a discernible geographic pattern in pedestrian fatalities, shedding light on the relationship between demographics, the built environment, and pedestrian fatalities. This study examined the potential influence of age, income, and race on pedestrian fatalities. Of those categories, race proved to be the most statistically significant. Analysis of FARS data revealed a significant bias toward fatalities involving non-white and Hispanic individuals during this five-year period. A comparison of FARS and ACS data during this period displayed a higher incidence of pedestrian fatalities in census blocks with high percentages of non-white and Hispanic populations. Furthermore, analysis of the FARS data indicated a non-random distribution of pedestrian fatalities. Subsequent regression analysis quantified the link between the racial composition of neighborhoods and pedestrian fatalities in Tucson. While this study revealed a statistically significant association between the racial composition of census blocks and pedestrian fatalities, it by no means provided a comprehensive explanation for pedestrian fatalities and their increased frequency.

      Mason, Jennifer; Webb, Amber (The University of Arizona., 2023-08)
      The canyons and badlands in El Golfo, Sonora, México have been found fossiliferous with land mammal fossils from the Irvingtonian age and Calabrian stage of the Pleistocene Epoch. There has not been any extensive GIS analyses performed on the fossil sites in El Golfo. The goal of this project is to build a geodatabase with associated feature classes of various El Golfo paleontological, geological, and physiographical data. Next construct cartographic products to look for patterns of paleofauna distribution and create an online webmap available for the scientific community for visualization and analysis. Finally, geoprocess a DEM to obtain elevation, slope, and aspect to predict fossil locations. For the suitability study GPS data was obtained from previous fossil prospecting and was paired with a digital elevation model to see what elevation, aspect and slope was prevalent. Histograms were then used to identify which values were favorable to use in the study. Finally, ModelBuilder was used to create a map of ideal sites. The results of the analysis identified areas which are more probable for finding fossils. This project is of value for future international researchers and the data will contribute to the natural resource management of fossils in El Golfo.

      Mason, Jennifer; Wilshin, Liz (The University of Arizona., 2023-08)
      This study looks at historic housing discrimination based on race and ethnicity in Tucson, Arizona. By studying 2020 U.S. Census data spatially joined with Covenants, Conditions, and Restrictions (CCRs) obtained from the Pima County Recorder's Office, the research explores the social and spatial implications of discriminatory practices. Through data collection and preparation combined with spatial analysis techniques, a web application was developed visualizing the impact of CCRs on housing patterns. The web application showcases subdivision polygons, demographic information from the Census, and allows users to explore the connections between CCRs and contemporary housing trends. While any findings from the spatial analyses are preliminary and require further verification due to potential data consistency issues, the web application serves as a proof of concept for the broader research initiative, "Mapping Racist Covenants." The study contributes to a deeper understanding of the lasting effects of discriminatory practices and provides valuable insights into the complex relationships between race, housing, and urban development.

      Mason, Jennifer; Lawrence, Brianne (The University of Arizona., 2023-08)
      On July 13th, 2021, the Dixie fire was reported after a Pacific Gas and Electric employee who saw flames about the size of 600 square feet within the Feather River Canyon. The California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection, also known as Cal Fire, arrived within 25 minutes and began their efforts to contain the fire. The Feather River Canyon is known for having a scenic byway filled with large trees, steep canyons and high winds. The area had the perfect conditions for a wildfire due to exceptional drought causing moisture levels within the forest to be at historic lows. 963,309 acres were burned until the fire was contained on October 25th, 2021. Small towns and communities were destroyed leaving the area bare and without life. This study seeks to model vegetation responses after land cover changes following the Dixie Fire. The burn scar made on-the-ground measurements difficult and impractical so instead, the imagery from Landsat 8 is used to form the basis of the measurements. The vegetation changes is calculated using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the normalized burn ratio (NBR) showing vegetation regeneration. This study can help local and federal agencies determine bare ground exposure which could lead to increased flooding, and to determine where vegetation regeneration has occurred.
    • Lackawanna River Watershed

      Mason, Jennifer; Becker, Jacob (The University of Arizona., 2023-08)
      The purpose of this study is to create and display a spatial analysis study on the Lackawanna River Watershed in Northeastern Pennsylvania. Specifically, an analysis that displays data containing contaminants in the air and water within the watershed study area, potentially correlating with the areas heavy use of coal mining historically. Using fugitive emission data to measure air contaminants and water pH, sulfates, and hard metals data to examine potentially polluted waters will show how this small yet essential watershed has been impacted. It is extremely important to run these studies to show the damage that is caused by coal mining and create preventative measures for the future. Protection of watersheds is paramount in conserving the local flora and fauna that feed us and nurture their surrounding ecosystems. Education and outreach can be a useful tool to make people aware of the issues at hand in their own backyards. With the devastating impacts a toxin filled watershed can have on its surrounding watersheds and environments, there should be more publicly accessible research studies that are user friendly to provide the proper awareness and education.
    • Assessing Habitat Value in Sonora for the Leopardus Pardalis

      Mason, Jennifer; Searles, Savanna (The University of Arizona., 2023)
      The ocelot can be found from northern Argentina to southern United States, with a small known population in southern Texas and a possible population in southern Arizona. They are protected both in the United States and in Mexico as an endangered species. Northeast Sonora deserves more research as an important extent of the current ocelot range, and one of the last linkages for ocelots in the United States. Identifying appropriate territory in Sonora exposes reasonable corridors for movement north into Arizona, where a small number of sightings and historical presence of ocelots are confirmed. This project examines habitat suitability using satellite derived data on canopy cover, vegetative land cover, as well as utilizing proximity to lakes, and distance from roads as raster inputs to a weighted rank suitability model. Testing multiple models reinforces the suitability of high scoring areas that are shared between scenarios. A review of the result showcases the need for additional research on habitat fragmentation, movement or dispersal, and cross-border studies of the ocelot.
    • Spectral Assessment of Vegetational Recovery Following the Owyhee Mountains' 2015 Soda Fire

      Mason, Jennifer; Albertson, James (The University of Arizona., 2023-08)
      Between August 10 and August 23, 2015, the Soda Fire burned 279,144 acres of the sagebrush steppe ecosystem in Idaho’s Owyhee and Oregon’s Malheur counties, southwest of Idaho’s capital, Boise. This project attempts to examine, visualize, and explain the impacts of this fire on the sagebrush steppe, while demonstrating the need for boots-on-the-ground perspective to give context to spectral analyses like those used in this study. The dNBR analysis shows a largely net-neutral or positive change in vegetation in comparison to pre-fire values with a mean value of -0.02. An NDVI analysis of 2018 values showed an 11% increase in vegetation health over pre-fire values, while an analysis of values in 2020 showed a 17% increase over pre-fire values.

      Mason, Jennifer; Williams, Connor (The University of Arizona., 2023-08)
      Seattle is the largest city in Washington State and has an estimated tree canopy cover of 28.1%. The health of the urban forest is a critical part of what gives the city its identity, as well as providing important ecosystem services to the city’s residents. The city is slowly losing its canopy through time, and the neighborhoods where canopy loss is happening the fastest have histories of economic and racial inequality. Various departments across the municipality are responsible for managing trees and they need to work together to manage the urban forest. Unfortunately, these departments each track only the trees they are directly responsible for. In this study I describe the methods used to design and create a combined tree inventory of all trees tracked and managed by the city of Seattle. I then use the resulting combined tree inventory to perform several example analyses that an urban forester at the city might perform. I found that this was a reliable method to manage the complex integration of many contributing data sources into a single, simple, user-friendly dataset while also supporting the inevitable changes made to the contributing datasets as business needs evolve.